Study Design and Analysis

On this page:

  • Study Design
  • Statistical Analysis
  • Training and Workshops

Study Design

Below are descriptions of selected study designs that may be advantageous to use in technology and self-management research. Please contact the Technology and Analysis Core for an individual consultation in designing your pilot study and planning your analysis.

Stepped-Wedge Design

The Stepped-Wedge Design is a pragmatic study design which can reconcile the need for robust evaluations with political or logistical constraints. While not exclusively for the evaluation of service delivery interventions, it is particularly suited to evaluations that do not rely on individual patient recruitment. (Heming et al 2015)

Multiphase Optimization Strategy (MOST)

Conceptually rooted in engineering, MOST emphasizes efficiency and careful management of resources to move intervention science forward systematically. MOST can be used to guide the evaluation of research evidence, develop optimized interventions, and enhance Type I and Type II translation of research. (Optimizing Behavioral Interventions, Penn State University)

Sequential Multiple Assignment Randomized Trial (SMART)

Adaptive interventions (also known as “adaptive treatment strategies” or “dynamic treatment regimens”) are individually tailored treatments. Formally, an adaptive intervention is a sequence of decision rules that specify how the intensity or type of treatment should change depending on the patient’s needs. We are developing sequential, multiple assignment, randomized trials (SMART) to enable scientists to build adaptive interventions. (Adaptive Interventions, Penn State University)

Other design resources

The Methodology Center at Penn State

Community-Based Participatory Research.  This evidence-based curriculum is intended as a tool for community-institutional partnerships that are using or planning to use a CBPR approach to improving health.  It can be used by partnerships that are just forming as well as mature partnerships.

Statistical Analysis



BCORe Check Your Knowledge. The Northeastern University Bouve College Office of Research has developed modules to review the basic concepts, methods, and applications of biostatistics. Each module includes a general overview of a topic, examples, knowledge checks, datasets to work on, program coding, and links for additional information.

Currently available modules

  • p-values
  • Non-inferiority testing

Princeton University Data and Statistical Services. Stata, R, and other documents presented here provide basic tools to get you started in data analysis, including time series analysis.