Usability Evaluation Methods for Gesture-Based Games: A Systematic Review
Simor FW, Brum MR, Schmidt JD, Rieder R, De Marchi AC
The goal of this study was to use a systematic review to evaluate usability of gestural interaction interfaces while considering devices with motion-sensing capabilities in ten studies that matched the eligibility criteria. Komlodi et al tested Wiimote devices in basic navigation, object manipulation, and menu gestural interaction tasks. The authors of this study ultimately found the need for more training time along with reducing the memory load for users in order to improve game usability. Legouverneur et al studied two Wii sports games to determine whether elderly persons with various levels of cognitive impairment could learn to play and control their movements with the Wiimote. All participants were ultimately able to play both games, with multiple sessions found to help increase comfort with the devices. Francese et al aimed to evaluate two games on the Wii and Kinect with the use of navigation maps. Natural gestures were associated to various demands, and questionnaires confirmed that if the interface is more natural, the user will be more satisfied and engaged. Liu et al evaluated the usability of a developed motion and exercise Kinect game that allowed users to compete among online friends. Users unconsciously increased their amount of exercise, while competing with friends further increased motivation and entertainment. Shin et al aimed to combine gestural rehabilitation exercises with game elements using Kinect system technology. Two groups of stroke patients received the “RehabMaster” game intervention to various degrees over multiple sessions. Results, however, were inconsistent due to different experimental protocols used. Fang et al developed an interactive prototype motion-based Kinect game in order to improve the elderly user’s balance and lower body strength. Gestures and various body motions were required as part of the games, and the participants ultimately approved the exercises based on the games. Norouzi-Gheidari et al validated a VR system for rehabilitation, using five Kinect games for motor recovery. The article unfortunately only showed preliminary results of each patient’s success rate, performance, and highest difficulty level reached. Harrington et al identified challenges faced by the elderly using exergames that use body motions and hand gestures. Most believed the exergames were a useful means to exercise. Nakai et al evaluate the usability of a game using Kansei or “feelings engineering.” The authors found that motivation was a key point in the Kinect motion games with the games attracting players’ attention. Sheu et al aimed to address issues in designing a gesture-based system for older populations, finding virtual selection works better than horizontal selection because the movement can be exhausting. Most of the ten studies used questionnaires (70%) and directed games toward the elderly (60%), showing the need to create a usability evaluation protocol for serious games for the elderly. The authors of this study suggest a usability evaluation for gesture and motion-based games include a questionnaire during the pretest to characterize the sample, performance and physiological data using the software during the test, and qualitative or quantitative analysis in the posttest. The studies also suggest identifying challenges that pertain to the patient group, and to provide guidance and motivation.