Participating Countries

The ISRD is an ongoing project, currently beginning its fourth sweep (ISRD4), allowing patterns of offending and victimization to be tracked over time. The fourth data collection wave is planned for 2020-2022.

ISRD4 is still open for participation.  Researchers interested in joining the ISRD4 data collection sweep may contact Professor Ineke Haen Marshall ( or any of the members of the ISRD4 Steering Committee.

About 50 countries are planning to participate in data collection for ISRD4, which will take place in 2021-2022.  For information on national teams, please go to country-specific pages. The following countries are currently part of the ISRD4 network (grouped by geographical region)

  • Africa: Cape Verde, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa
  • Asia: India, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Pakistan, Taiwan, Turkey, South Korea
  • Europe:
    • Eastern and Central European countries: Armenia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Czech Republic, Estonia, Kosovo, Lithuania, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia
    • Mediterranean countries: Cyprus, Italy, Portugal, Spain
    • Northern European countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden
    • Western European countries: Austria, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, the Netherlands, the UK
  • North America:  USA, Mexico
  • Latin America: Argentina, Belize, Brazil, Caribbean, Venezuela
  • Oceania: Australia, New Zealand


  • The self-report school questionnaire will be administered online, in two cities in each country, to a representative sample of 13 to 17 year students within the classroom setting.  For ISRD4, the focus has moved to 13 to 17 year old students (8th, 9th, 10th, and 11th grade), in part because offending and victimization rates are higher for those age groups,10 and in part because of the interest in comparing student samples with samples of young people recruited via the internet.  As in previous sweeps, in ISRD4 the target sample size for each national team will be 1,800 school students. Given the increasing difficulty of accessing schools for survey research, the development of sampling via the internet, and the fact that not all young people are in school (particularly as age increases), each national team will also gather a supplemental national sample of 16 and 17 year-olds recruited via the internet, using an abbreviated form of the standard ISRD4 questionnaire.

Theoretical focus:

  •  ISRD data enable tests of many prominent delinquency theories. The sweep-specific focus  ISRD4 is online offending and victimization,  perceptions of violence, and minority groups and identity.