How do fish in the Southern Ocean keep from freezing?
Photo of diver
Photo a globe
Photo of the ship
Map of southern ocean region
Faulkland Islands
S. Georgia Island
S. Sandwich Islands
Tristan Da Cunha
Bouvetoya Islands

Falkland Islands

The Falkland Islands, like the Galapagos, contain examples of flora and fauna not found elsewhere. Since their discovery in the 19th Century, some have now disappeared, but other remain. There are still species in the waters of the Falkland Islands that have yet to be catalogued. Falkland Sampling Sites »

S. Georgia Island

Called an "oasis" in the stormy Southern Oceans, South Georgia Island is home to sea and land birds, seals and reindeer. Two mountain ranges form the spine of this long, narrow island. In the summer, 75% of the island is covered in glaciers, ice caps and snowfields; in winter the island is covered in snow. S. Georgia Sampling Sites »

S. Sandwich Islands

Eleven islands comprise the South Sandwich Islands. In 1775 James Cook discovered the eight most southerly islands, naming it "Sandwich Land" after the 4th Earl of Sandwich. Sealers first landed on the islands in 1818, and the first tourists visited in 1982. The islands remain one of the world's largest penguin colonies. S. Sandwich Sampling Sites »

Tristan Da Cunha

Discovered by Portuguese navigator Tristao da Cunha, the island is today inhabited by 300+ people whose main sources of revenue are the sale of crawfish and of postage stamps. The island is called an "ornothologist's dream" with its petrel, rockhopper penguins and the albatross. Tristan da Cunha Sampling Sites »

Bouvetoya Islands

Approximately 4 miles long by 3 miles wide, Bouvetoya is covered mostly by glaciers. At the island's center is the ice-filled crater of an inactive volcano known as the Wilhelm II Plateau. Massive cliffs (some as high as 500 meters) surround the island. Bouvetoya Sampling Sites »

In the Classroom

Facts about exploring the polar Region

The Nathaniel B. Palmer makes up to 12,000 gallons of drinking water from seawater each day. Learn more facts »

K-12 Educator Resources

Lesson plans, maps and other resources for bringing this globally significant science into the classroom. Access K-12 Resources »

The Age of Polar Exploration

Timeline showing the heroic age of early exploration in Antarctica. See the timeline »

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ICEFISH: International Collaborative Expedition to collect & study Fish Indigenous to Sub-Antarctic Habitats
Cruise sponsored by NSF and Northeastern University. R/VNBP Operated by Raytheon