Table of Experimental Studies on Load Transfer in CFT Systems

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Reference Experiment Synopsis Number of Tests Notes
Morishita, Tomii, and Yoshimura 1979 Push-off tests of circular, square, and octagonal CFTs 60 total (28 circular, 28 square, 4 octagonal)
Tomii, Yoshimura, and Morishita 1980 Push-off tests of circular, square, and octagonal CFTs 60 total (28 circular, 28 square, 4 octagonal)
  • Included smooth and checkers steel-concrete interface
  • Used both ordinary and expansive concrete
Virdi and Dowling 1980 Push-out tests of circular CFTs 91
  • Varied compaction of concrete and surface treatment
Morishita and Tomii 1982 Cyclic push-out tests of square CFTs 24
  • Constant axial load applied with cyclic shear force at the top
  • Axial load applied either to the concrete and steel tube simultaneously or to the steel tube only
  • Columns supported on the steel tube and concrete simultaneously
Shakir-Khalil 1993a Push-out tests of square and circular CFTs with shear connectors 56 (30 square, 26 circular)
  • Axial loading on to the concrete at the top
  • Axial loading through steel brackets or plates attached to the steel tube
  • Columns supported on the steel tube alone at the bottom
Shakir-Khalil 1993b Push-out tests of rectangular, square and, circular CFTs with dry or oiled interface 40 (16 rectangular, 12 square, 12 circular)
  • Monotonic or repeated axial load applied on the concrete concentrically
  • Columns supported on the steel tube alone at the bottom
Shakir-Khalil and Hassan 1994 Push-out test of rectangular CFTs with shear connectors 52 Monotonic axial loading of the concrete alone at the top while the column supported on the steel tube at the bottom
Kilpatrick and Rangan 1999 Bond tests of circular CFT columns and beams having various interface conditions including maximum bond, partial bond and minimum bond. HT tubes were also tested under axial load
  • 3 CFTs, 1 HTs (stub columns)
  • 6 CFTs, 2 HTs (short and slender columns)
  • 4 CFTs, 1 HT (beam)
  • Axial load applied to the steel and concrete simultaneously
  • Column supported on the steel and concrete simultaneously at the bottom
Roeder, Cameron, and Brown 1999 Push-out tests of circular CFTs filled with concrete having moderate or little shrinkage potential 20
  • Concentric, eccentric and cyclic concentric load applied on the concrete alone
  • Columns supported on the steel tube at the bottom
Parsley, Yura, and Jirsa 2000 Push-out test of rectangular CFTs with and without shear tab connections supporting the steel tube 8
  • Load applied through spherical crosshead at the top on the concrete alone
  • Steel tube was supported at the bottom either by bearing or a shear tab connection
Mouli and Khelafi 2007 Push-out test of rectangular CFTs with normal weight and light weight concrete 4 Rectangular Hollow Section CFTs Bond strength and squash load tested


General Information

Reference Experiment Synopsis Number of Tests Loading Method Results Reported Main Parameters Comments
Morishita, Tomii, and Yoshimura 1979 Push-out tests of circular, square, and octagonal CFTs 60

(28 circular, 28 square, 4 octagonal)

Axial load applied at the top on the steel tube alone and the columns supported on both steel and concrete at the bottom
  • L vs. εs
  • fbs vs. ds
  • Distribution of longitudinal stress difference of steel along the column
  • Concrete strength (f'c)
  • Cross-section shape
Tomii, Yoshimura, and Morishita 1980 Push-out tests of circular CFTs 91 Axial load applied at the top on the concrete alone and the column supported on the steel tube at the bottom
  • fb
  • fbs vs. ds
  • Age of concrete
  • f'c
  • L
  • D
  • compaction of concrete
  • surface treatment
Virdi and Dowling 1980 Push-out tests of circular CFTs 91 Axial load applied at the top on the concrete alone and the column supported on the steel tube at the bottom
  • fb
  • fbs vs. ds
  • Age of concrete
  • f'c
  • L
  • D
  • compaction of concrete
  • surface treatment
Morishita and Tomii 1982 Cyclic push-out tests of square CFTs 24
  • Constant axial load applied with cyclic shear force at the top
  • Axial load applied either to the conc. and steel tube simult. or or only to the steel tube
  • Cols. supported on the steel tube and concrete simult.
  • H vs. R
  • L vs. εs
  • P -fbs vs. ds
  • P
  • f'c
  • method of applying axial load at the top of the column (steel tube alone or steel tube and concrete simult.)
Shakir-Khalil 1993a Push-out tests of square and circular CFTs 56

(30 square, 26 circular)

  • Axial loading on to the concrete at the top
  • Axial loading through steel brackets or plates attached to the steel tube
  • Columns supported on the steel tube alone at the bottom
  • P vs. ds
  • P vs. εs
  • Pu, fb
  • ds
  • Tube shape
  • type and number of shear connectors
  • type of loading
Shakir-Khalil 1993b Push-out tests of rectangular, square and, circular CFTs with dry or oiled interface 40

(16 rectangular, 12 square, 12 circular)

  • Monotonic or repeated axial load applied on the concrete concentrically
  • Columns supported on the steel tube alone at the bottom
  • P vs. ds
  • P vs. εs
  • Pu
  • fb
  • ds
  • Tube shape
  • interface condition
  • interface length
  • loading type
  • number and location of shear connectors
Shakir-Khalil and Hassan 1994 Push-out test of rectangular CFTs 52 Monotonic axial loading of the concrete alone at the top while the column supported on the steel tube at the bottom
  • P vs ds
  • Pu
  • fb
  • ds
  • Shear connector type
  • Number and location of shear connectors
  • Concrete Strength (f'c)
Kilpatrick and Rangan 1999 Bond tests of circular CFT columns and beams having various interface conditions including maximum bond, partial bond and minimum bond. HT tubes were also tested under axial load
  • 3 CFTs, 1 HTs (stub cols.)
  • 6 CFTs, 2 HTs (short and slender cols)
  • 4 CFTs, 1 HT (beam)
  • Axial load applied to the steel and concrete simultaneously
  • Column supported on the steel and concrete simultaneously at the bottom
  • P vs. εs
  • P vs. δ
  • Interface condition
  • L/D
Roeder, Cameron, and Brown 1999 Push-out tests of circular CFTs filled with concrete having moderate or little shrinkage potential 20
  • Concentric, eccentric and cyclic concentric load applied on the concrete alone
  • Columns supported on the steel tube at the bottom
  • fb vs. L
  • fb vs. D
  • fb vs. D/t
  • P vs. ds Pu,fb
  • D
  • t
  • shrinkage strain of concrete
Parsley, Yura, and Jirsa 2000 Push-out test of rectangular CFTs with and without shear tab connections supporting the steel tube 8
  • Load applied through spherical crosshead at the top on the concrete alone
  • Steel tube was supported at the bottom either by bearing or a shear tab connection
  • P vs. slip
  • Psteel vs. L
  • fb vs. t/b2
  • D
  • support of steel section
Mouli and Khelafi 2007 Push-out test of rectangular CFTs with normal weight and light weight concrete 4 Rectangular Hollow Section CFTs Tested in Standard Compression machine P vs. slip
  • Normal Weight concrete vs. Lightweight concrete
  • L
Bond strength and squash load tested


Specimen Information

Reference Length (L) (in) Interface Length (in) Bond Strength (fb) (psi) Shear Connectors
Morishita, Tomii, and Yoshimura 1979 29.53 29.53 28.5-56.9 (circular) 21.3-42.7 (square and octagonal) none
Tomii, Yoshimura, and Morishita 1980 28.94 28.94 Circular 56.9-85.4 (checkered) 28.5-56.9 (smooth) sqr. & oct. 56.9-71.1 (checkered) 21.3-42.7 (smooth) Checkered surface
Virdi and Dowling 1980 5.88-18.25 4.38-16.75 48.1-433.8 (avg. values) none
Morishita and Tomii 1982 35 29 21.3-49.8 none
Shakir-Khalil 1993a 17.7 15.8 63.8, 120.4
  • Hilti nails (2.44 in long, 0.146 in. diameter)
  • Grade 4.6 M12 Black Bolts (1.97 in long)
Shakir-Khalil 1993b 9.8, 17.7, 25.6 7.9, 15.7, 23.6 29.0-580.2
  • Grade 4.6 M12 Black Bolts (1.97 in long)
Shakir-Khalil and Hassan 1994 17.72 15.74 28.4-77.3
  • Grade 4.6 Black bolts
  • Grade 8.8 Black bolts
  • threaded bars
Kilpatrick and Rangan 1999 13.78 (stub) 40.83 (short) 76.85 (slender) 82.68 (beam) 13.78 (stub) 40.83 (short) 76.85 (slender) 82.68 (beam) 1.5-114.0
  • Self-tapping screws (Double helix pattern with a pitch length of 3.15 in) (length = 1.18 in., diameter = 0.193 in.)
Roeder, Cameron, and Brown 1999 46 41.5 N.A. none
Parsley, Yura, and Jirsa 2000 48-60 47-59 27.0-71.0 none
Mouli and Khelafi 2007 21.65 19.67 117.48-121.83 (NWC), 60.92-62.37 (LWC) none

Cross Section Information

Reference Tube Dimensions Steel Properties Concrete Properties
Morishita, Tomii, and Yoshimura 1979
  • ◌: diam. (D) □: depth (D) x width: 5.91, 6.51 (circular) 5.91 x 5.91 (square, octagonal)
  • Wall Thickness (t) (in): 0.126, 0.142 (circular) 0.126, 0.169 (square, octagonal)
  • Diameter/thickness (D/t): 45.9, 46.9 (circular) 34.9, 46.9 (square)
Cold-formed mild steel

Fy = 36.6, 37.0 ksi (circular) 36.7, 37.8 ksi (square octagonal)

f'c = 2.76-4.85 ksi (circular) 2.73-4.81 ksi(square) 4.85 ksi (octagonal)
Tomii, Yoshimura, and Morishita 1980
  • ◌: diam. (D) □: depth (D) x width: 5.91 (circular) 5.91 x 5.91 (square and octagonal)
  • Wall Thickness (t) (in): 0.126
  • Diameter/thickness (D/t): 46.9
Cold-formed mild steel

Fy = 36.6 ksi (smooth) 36.3 ksi (checkered)

f'c = 2.42-6.69 ksi (expansive) 2.89-4.92 ksi (ordinary)
Virdi and Dowling 1980
  • ◌: diam. (D) □: depth (D) x width: 5.84-12.05
  • Wall Thickness (t) (in): 0.22-0.40
  • Diameter/thickness (D/t): 14.8-32.3
Mild steel f'c = 3.19-6.72
Morishita and Tomii 1982
  • ◌: diam. (D) □: depth (D) x width: 5.88 x 5.88
  • Wall Thickness (t) (in): 0.166-0.170
  • Diameter/thickness (D/t): 35
Cold-formed mild steel

Fy = 49.2-50.9 ksi

f'c = 3.32, 3.86, 5.08 ksi
Shakir-Khalil 1993a
  • ◌: diam. (D) □: depth (D) x width: 5.91 x 5.91, 7.87 x 7.87 (square) 6.63, 8.63 (circular)
  • Wall Thickness (t) (in): 0.19, 0.0248
  • Diameter/thickness (D/t): 30.0, 31.7 (square) 33.6, 34.8 (circular)
Mild steel Grade 43 f'c = 5.22-6.16 ksi
Shakir-Khalil 1993b
  • ◌: diam. (D) □: depth (D) x width: 4.72 x 3.15 (rectangular) 5.91 (square) 6.63 (circular)
  • Wall Thickness (t) (in): 0.197
  • Diameter/thickness (D/t): 24 (rectangular) 30 (square) 33.7 (circular)
Mild steel Grade 43 f'c = 5.50-6.43 ksi
Shakir-Khalil and Hassan 1994
  • ◌: diam. (D) □: depth (D) x width: 5.91 x 3.94
  • Wall Thickness (t) (in): 0.197
  • Diameter/thickness (D/t): 30
N.A. f'c = 3.19-12.18 ksi
Kilpatrick and Rangan 1999
  • ◌: diam. (D) □: depth (D) x width: 4
  • Wall Thickness (t) (in): 0.094
  • Diameter/thickness (D/t): 42.3
Cold-formed

Fy = 50.8 ksi

f'c = 15.30 ksi
Roeder, Cameron, and Brown 1999
  • ◌: diam. (D) □: depth (D) x width: 10.3-23.8 (circular)
  • Wall Thickness (t) (in): 0.28-0.53
  • Diameter/thickness (D/t): 19.4-108.0
N.A. f'c = 4.05-6.86 ksi
Parsley, Yura, and Jirsa 2000
  • ◌: diam. (D) □: depth (D) x width: 8 x 8, 10 x 10
  • Wall Thickness (t) (in): 0.25
  • Diameter/thickness (D/t): 32.0-40.0
Fy = 48.0 ksi f'c = 5.86-6.55 ksi
Mouli and Khelafi 2007
  • ◌: diam. (D) □: depth (D) x width: 4.72 x 3.15, 3.94 x 5.91
  • Wall Thickness (t) (in): 0.2
  • Diameter/thickness (D/t): 15.75, 29.55
Fy = 49.3-52.65 ksi f'c = 6.5 (NWC) , 5.32 (LWC) ksi