CFT Member Studies

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Summarized Studies

Author(s) Year Publication Reference Links
Aho & Leon 1997 Georgia Institute of Technology Aho, M. and Leon, R. T. (1997). “A Database for Encased and Concrete-Filled Columns,” Report No. 97-01, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia. Summary
Aval, Saadeghvaziri, & Golafshani 2002 Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE Aval, S. B. B., Saadeghvaziri, M. A., and Golafshani, A. A. (2002). “Comprehensive Composite Inelastic Fiber Element for Cyclic Analysis of Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Columns,” Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE, Vol. 128, No. 4, April, pp. 428-437. Summary
Bergmann 1994 Tubular Structures VI Bergmann, R. (1994). “Load Introduction in Composite Columns Filled With High Strength Concrete,” Tubular Structures VI, Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Tubular Structures, Grundy, P., Holgate, A., and Wong, B. (eds.), Melbourne, Australia, 14-16 December 1994, A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 373-380. Summary
Bode 1976 Acier Stahl Bode, H. (1976). “Columns of Steel Tubular Sections Filled with Concrete Design and Applications,” Acier Stahl, No. 11/12, pp. 388-393. Summary
Bridge 1976 University of Sydney Bridge, R. Q. (1976). “Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Columns,” Report No. R283, School of Civil Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia, 1976. Summary
Bridge & Webb 1976 Composite Construction in Steel and Concrete II Bridge, R. Q. and Webb, J. (1993). “Thin Walled Circular Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Columns,” Composite Construction in Steel and Concrete II, Proceedings of the Engineering Foundation Conference, Easterling, W. S. and Roddis, W. M. (eds.), Potosi, Missouri, June 14-19, 1992, ASCE, New York, New York, pp. 634-649. Summary
Bridge & Yeung 1993 Composite Construction in Steel and Concrete II Bridge, R. Q. and Yeung, S. (1993). “The Definition of a Short Composite Column,” Composite Construction in Steel and Concrete II, Proceedings of the Engineering Foundation Conference, Easterling, W. S. and Roddis, W. M. (eds.), Potosi, Missouri, June 14-19, 1992, ASCE, New York, New York, pp. 809-824. Summary
Bruneau & Marson 2004 Journal of Bridge Engineering Bruneau, M. and Marson, J. (2004). ”Seismic Design of Concrete-Filled Circular Steel Bridge Piers.” Journal of Bridge Engineering, 9(1), 24–34. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)1084-0702(2004)9:1(24) Summary
Cai 1988 Composite Construction in Steel and Concrete Cai, S.-H. (1988). “Ultimate Strength of Concrete-Filled Tube Columns,” Composite Construction in Steel and Concrete, Proceedings of the Engineering Foundation Conference, Buckner, C. D. and Viest, I. M. (eds.), Henniker, New Hampshire, 7-12 June 1987, ASCE, New York, pp. 702-727. Summary
Cai 1991 Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures Cai, S.-H. (1991). “Influence of Moment Distribution Diagram on Load-Carrying Capacity of Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Columns,” Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Wakabayashi, M. (ed.), Fukuoka, Japan, September 26-29, 1991, Association for International Cooperation and Research in Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, pp. 113-118. Summary
Cederwall, Engstrom, & Grauers 1990 Second International Sympsium on Utilization of High-Strength Concrete Cederwall, K., Engstrom, B., and Grauers, M. (1990). “High-Strength Concrete Used in Composite Columns,” Second International Sympsium on Utilization of High-Strength Concrete, Hester, W. T. (ed.), Berkeley, California, May, pp. 195-214. Summary
Chen & Chen 1973 IABSE Chen, W. F. and Chen C. H. (1973). “Analysis of Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Beam-Columns,” Memoires, IABSE, Vol. 33, No. II, pp. 37-52. Summary
Chung, Chung, & Choi 2007 Thin-Walled Structures Chung, K., Chung, J., and Choi, S. (2007). “Prediction of Pre- and Post-Peak Behavior of Concrete-Filled Square Steel Tube Columns under Cyclic Loads using Fiber Element Method.” Thin-Walled Structures, Vol. 45, No. 9, pp. 747-758. doi:10.1016/j.tws.2007.06.003 Summary
Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat 1979 Structural Design of Tall Steel Buildings Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (1979). Structural Design of Tall Steel Buildings, Monograph on the Planning and Design of Tall Buildings, Vol. SB, ASCE, New York, pp. 671-680. Summary
Du, Chen, Liew & Xiong 2017 Journal of Construction Steeel Research Du, Y., Chen, Z., Liew, J., Xiong, M.-X. (2017). “Rectangular Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Beam-Columns Using High-Strength Steel: Experiments and Design.” Journal of Construction Steel Research 131, April pp. 1-18 doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2016.12.016 Summary
El Din, Matsui, & Tsuda 1993 Journal of Structural Engineering, Japan Society of Civil Engineering El Din, H. Z., Matsui, C., and Tsuda, K. (1993). “Stability and Post-Buckling Behavior of Concrete Filled Square Tubular Columns,” Journal of Structural Engineering, Japan Society of Civil Engineering, Vol. 39B, pp. 323-334. Summary
El-Remaily, Aziznamini, Zaki, & Filippou 1997 Proceedings of the PCI/FHWA International Symposium on High Performance Concrete El-Remaily, A., Azizinamini, A., Zaki, M., and Filippou, F. (1997). “Seismic Behavior of High Strength Concrete-Filled Tube Beam-Columns,” Proceedings of the PCI/FHWA International Symposium on High Performance Concrete, New Orleans, Loiusiana, October 20-22, 1997, PCI, Detroit, Michigan, pp. 383-393. Summary
Elremaily & Azizinamini 2002 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Elremaily, A. and Azizinamini, A. (2002). “Behavior and Strength of Circular Concrete-Filled Tube Columns,” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 58, pp. 1567-1591. Summary
Elchalakani, Zhao, & Grzebieta 2001 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Elchalakani, M., Zhao, X.L., and Grzebieta, R.H. (2001). "Concrete-Filled Circular Steel Tubes Subjected To Pure Bending," Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 57 (11), pp. 1141-1168. doi:10.1016/S0143-974X(01)00035-9 Summary
Elchalakani, Zhao, & Grzebieta 2004 Engineering Structures Elchalakani, M., Zhao, X.-L., and Grzebieta, R. (2004). “Concrete-Filled Steel Circular Tubes Subjected to Constant Amplitude Cyclic Pure Bending,” Engineering Structures, Vol. 26, pp. 2125-2135. Summary
Elchalakani & Zhao 2008 Engineering Structures Elchalakani, M., and Zhao, X.-L. (2008). “Concrete-Filled Cold-Formed Circular Steel Tubes Subjected to Variable Amplitude Cyclic Pure Bending.” Engineering Structures, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 287-299. Summary
Ellobody, Young, & Lam 2006 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Ellobody, E., Young, B., and Lam, D. (2006). “Behaviour of Normal and High Strength Concrete-Filled Compact Steel Tube Circular Stub Columns,” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 62, pp. 706-715. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2005.11.002 Summary
Fujikura & Bruneau 2008 Journal of Bridge Engineering Fujikura, S., Bruneau, M., and Lopez-Garcia, D. (2008). ”Experimental Investigation of Multihazard Resistant Bridge Piers Having Concrete-Filled Steel Tube under Blast Loading.” Journal of Bridge Engineering, 13(6), 586–594. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1084-0702(2008)13:6(586) Summary
Fujimoto, Nishiyama, Mukai and Baba 1996 Proceedings of the Third Joint Technical Coordinating Committee Meeting Fujimoto, T., Nishiyama, I., Mukai, A., and Baba, T. (1996). “Test Results of Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Beam-Columns,” Proceedings of the Third Joint Technical Coordinating Committee Meeting, U.S.-Japan Cooperative Research Program, Phase 5: Composite and Hybrid Structures, Hong Kong, December 12-14, 1996, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia. Summary
Fujimoto, Mukai, Nishiyama & Sakino 2004 Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE Fujimoto, T., Mukai, A., Nishiyama, I., and Sakino, K. (2004). “Behavior of Eccentrically Loaded Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Columns,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 130, No. 2, February, pp. 203-212. Summary
Furlong 1967 Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE Furlong, R. W. (1967). “Strength of Steel-Encased Concrete Beam Columns,” Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 93, No. ST5, pp. 113-124. Summary
Furlong 1968 Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE Furlong, R. W. (1968). “Design of Steel-Encased Concrete Beam Columns,” Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 94, No. ST1, pp. 267-281. Summary
Gajalakshmi & Helena 2012 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Gajalakshmi, P., and Helena, H. J. (2012). “Behaviour of Concrete-Filled Steel Columns Subjected to Lateral Cyclic Loading.” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 75, 55–63. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2012.03.006 Summary
Gardner & Jacobson 1967 Journal of the American Concrete Institute Gardner, N. J. and Jacobson, E. R. (1967). “Structural Behavior of Concrete Filled Steel Tubes,” Journal of the American Concrete Institute, Vol. 64, No. 11, pp. 404-413. Summary
Gardner 1968 Journal of the American Concrete Institute Gardner, N. J. (1968). “Use of Spiral Welded Steel Tubes in Pipe Columns,” Journal of the American Concrete Institute, Vol. 65, No. 11, pp. 937-942. Summary
Ghannam, Jawad, & Hunaiti 2004 Steel and Composite Structures Ghannam, S., Jawad, Y. A., and Hunaiti, Y. (2004). “Failure of Lightweight Aggregate Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Columns,” Steel and Composite Structures, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 1-8. Summary
Giakoumelis & Lam 2003 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Giakoumelis, G. and Lam, D. (2003). “Axial Capacity of Circular Concrete-Filled Tube Columns,” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 60, pp. 1049-1068. Summary
Goode 2008 The Structural Engineer Goode, C. D. (2008). “Composite Columns - 1819 Tests on Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Columns Compared with Eurocode 4.” The Structural Engineer, 86(16), 33–38. Summary
Guo, Zhang, Kim, & Ranzi 2007 Thin-Walled Structures Guo, L., Zhang, S., Kim, W.-J., and Ranzi, G. (2007). “Behavior of Square Hollow Steel Tubes and Steel Tubes Filled With Concrete.” Thin-Walled Structures, 45(12), 961-973. Summary
Gupta, Sarda, & Kumar 2007 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Gupta P. K., Sarda S. M., Kumar M. S. (2007) "Experimental and Computational Study of Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Columns Under Axial Loads," Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 63 (2), pp. 182-193. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2006.04.004 Summary
Hajjar & Gourley 1996 Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE Hajjar, J. F. and Gourley, B. C. (1996). “Representation of Concrete-Filled Tube Cross-Section Strength,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 122, No. 11, November, pp. 1327-1336. Summary
Hajjar & Gourley 1997a Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE Hajjar, J. F. and Gourley, B. C. (1997a). “A Cyclic Nonlinear Model for Concrete-Filled Tubes. I. Formulation,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 123, No. 6, June, pp. 736-744. Summary
Hajjar, Gourley, & Olson 1997b Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE Hajjar, J. F., Gourley, B. C., and Olson, M. C. (1997b). “A Cyclic Nonlinear Model for Concrete-Filled Tubes. II. Verification,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 123, No. 6, June, pp. 745-754. Summary
Hajjar, Schiller, & Molodan 1998a Engineering Structures Hajjar, J. F., Schiller, P. H., and Molodan, A. (1998a). “A Distributed Plasticity Model for Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Beam-Columns with Interlayer Slip,” Engineering Structures, Vol. 20, No. 8, August, pp. 663-676. Summary
Hajjar, Schiller, & Molodan 1998b Engineering Structures Hajjar, J. F., Molodan, A., and Schiller, P. H. (1998b). “A Distributed Plasticity Model for Cyclic Analysis of Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Beam-Columns and Composite Frames,” Engineering Structures, Vol. 20, Nos. 4-6, April-June, pp. 398-412. Summary
Han & Li 2010 Journal of Construction Steel Research Han, L., and Li, W. (2010) “Seismic Performance of CFST Column to Steel Beam Joint with RC Slab: Experiments.” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 66 (11), pp. 1374–1386. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2010.05.003 Summary
Han & Yan 2000 Composite and Hybrid Structures Han, L.-H. and Yan, S.-Z. (2000). “Experimental Studies on the Strength with High Slenderness Ratio Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Columns,” Composite and Hybrid Structures, Proceedings of the Sixth ASCCS International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Xiao, Y. and Mahin, S. A. (eds.), Los Angeles, California, March 22-24, 2000, Association for International Cooperation and Research in Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Los Angeles, California, pp. 419-426. Summary
Han & Yang 2005 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Han, L. H., and Yang, Y. F. (2005). “Cyclic Performance of Concrete-Filled Steel CHS Columns Under Flexural Loading,” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 61 No. 4, pp. 423-452. Summary
Han, He & Liao 2011 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Han, L., He, S., and Liao, F. (2011). “Performance and Calculations of Concrete Filled Steel Tubes (CFST) under Axial Tension.” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 67 (11), November, pp. 1699–1709., doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2011.04.005 Summary
Han, Hou, Zhao, & Rasmussen 2014 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Han, L., Hou, C., Zhao, X., and Rasmussen, K. (2014). “Behaviour of High-Strength Concrete Filled Steel Tubes under Transverse Impact Loading.” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 92, January, pp. 25–39., doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2013.09.003 Summary
Han, Huang & Zhao 2009 Thin-Walled Structures Han L.-H., Huang H., Zhao X.-L. (2009). "Analytical Behaviour of Concrete-Filled Double Skin Steel Tubular (CFDST) Beam-Columns under Cyclic Loading," Thin-Walled Structures, 47 (6-7), pp. 668-680. doi:10.1016/j.tws.2008.11.008 Summary
Han, Li & Liao 2011 Thin-Walled Structures Han, L., Li, Y., and Liao, F. (2011). “Concrete-Filled Double Skin Steel Tubular (CFDST) Columns Subjected to Long-Term Sustained Loading.” Thin-Walled Structures, 49 (12), December, pp. 1534–1543. doi:10.1016/j.tws.2011.08.001 Summary
Han, Tao, & Yao 2008 Thin-Walled Structures Han, L.-H., Tao, Z., and Yao, G.-H. (2008). "Behaviour of Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Members Subjected to Shear and Constant Axial Compression," Thin-Walled Structures, 46 (7-9), pp. 765-780. doi:10.1016/j.tws.2008.01.026 Summary
Han, Tao, Liao & Xu 2010 Thin-Walled Structures Han, L., Tao, Z., Liao, F., and Xu, Y. (2010) “Tests on Cyclic Performance of FRP-€“Concrete-Steel Double-Skin Tubular Columns.” Thin-Walled Structures, 48 (6), pp. 430–439. doi:10.1016/j.tws.2010.01.007 Summary
Han, Yao, & Tao 2007 Thin-Walled Structures Han, L.-H., Yao, G.-H., and Tao, Z. (2007). "Performance of Concrete-Filled Thin-Walled Steel Tubes Under Pure Torsion," Thin-Walled Structures, 45 (1), pp. 24-36. doi: 10.1016/j.tws.2007.01.008 Summary
Han, Zhao, & Tao 2001 Steel and Composite Structures Han, L.-H., Zhao, X.-L., and Tao, Z. (2001). “Test and Mechanics Model for Concrete-Filled SHS Stub Columns, Columns, and Beam-Columns,” Steel and Composite Structures, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 51-74. Summary
Hardika & Gardner 2004 ACI Structural Journal Hardika, M. S. and Gardner, N. J. (2004). “Behavior of Concrete-Filled Hollow Structural Section Beam Columns to Seismic Shear Displacements,” ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 101, No. 1, pp. 39-46. Summary
Hsu & Yu 2003 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Hsu, H.-L. and Yu, H.-L. (2003). “Seismic Performance of Concrete-Filled Tubes with Restrained Plastic Hinge Zones,” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 59, pp. 587-608. Summary
Huang, Huang, & Zhong 1991 Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures Huang, S., Huang, X, and Zhong, S. (1991). “Experimental Research on Behavior of CFST Member Resisting Lateral Load,” Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Wakabayashi, M. (ed.), Fukuoka, Japan, September 26-29, 1991, Association for International Cooperation and Research in Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, pp. 107-112. Summary
Ichinohe, Matsutani, Nakajima, Ueda & Takada 1991 Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures Ichinohe, Y., Matsutani, T., Nakajima, M., Ueda, H., and Takada, K. (1991). “Elasto-Plastic Behavior of Concrete Filled Steel Circular Columns,” Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Wakabayashi, M. (ed.), Fukuoka, Japan, September 26-29, 1991, Association for International Cooperation and Research in Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, pp. 131-136. Summary
Inai & Sakino 1996 Proceedings of the Third Joint Technical Coordinating Committee Meeting Inai, E. and Sakino, K. (1996). “Simulation of Flexural Behavior of Square Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Columns,” Proceedings of the Third Joint Technical Coordinating Committee Meeting, U.S.-Japan Cooperative Research Program, Phase 5: Composite and Hybrid Structures, Hong Kong, December 12-14, 1996, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia. Summary
Inai, Nogushi, Mori & Fujimoto 2000 Composite and Hybrid Structures Inai, E., Noguchi, T., Mori, O., and Fujimoto, T. (2000). “Deformation Capacity and Hysteretic Model of Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Beam-Columns, Composite and Hybrid Structures, Proceedings of the Sixth ASCCS International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Xiao, Y. and Mahin, S. A. (eds.), Los Angeles, California, March 22-24, 2000, Association for International Cooperation and Research in Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Los Angeles, California, pp. 605-612. Summary
Inai, Mukai, Kai, Tokinoya, Fukumoto & Mori 2004 Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE Inai, E., Mukai, A., Kai, M., Tokinoya, H., Fukumoto, T., and Mori, K. (2004). “Behavior of Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Beam Columns,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 130, No. 2, February, pp. 189-202. Summary
Johansson & Gylltoft 2002 Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE Johansson, M. and Gylltoft, K. (2002). “Mechanical Behavior of Circular Steel-Concrete Composite Stub Columns,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 128, No. 8, August, pp. 1073-1081. Summary
Kawaguchi, Morino, Atsumi & Yamamoto 1993 Composite Construction in Steel and Concrete II Kawaguchi, J., Morino, S., Atsumi, H., and Yamamoto, S. (1993). “Strength Deterioration Behavior of Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Beam-Columns,” Composite Construction in Steel and Concrete II, Proceedings of the Engineering Foundation Conference, Easterling, W. S. and Roddis, W. M. (eds.), Potosi, Missouri, June 14-19, 1992, ASCE, New York, New York, pp. 825-839. Summary
Kawaguchi, Morino, & Sugimoto 1997 Composite Construction in Steel and Concrete III Kawaguchi, J., Morino, S., and Sugimoto, T. (1997). “Elasto-Plastic Behavior of Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Frames,” Composite Construction in Steel and Concrete III, Proceedings of the Engineering Foundation Conference, Buckner, C. D. and Shahrooz, B. M. (eds.), Irsee, Germany, June 9-14, 1996, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, New York, pp. 272-281. Summary
Kawaguchi, Morino, Shirai & Tatsuta 1998 Proceedings of the Fifth Pacific Structural Steel Conference Kawaguchi, J., Morino, S., Shirai, J. and Tatsuta, E. (1998). “Database and Structural Characteristics of CFT Beam-Columns,” Proceedings of the Fifth Pacific Structural Steel Conference, Seoul, Korea, October 13-16, 1998. Summary
Kawano & Matsui 1988 Proceedings of the Ninth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering Kawano, A. and Matsui, C. (1988). “Experimental Study on Hysteretic Behavior of Concrete Filled Tubular Members under Repeated Axial Loading,” Proceedings of the Ninth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Tokyo-Kyoto, August 2-9, 1988, 9WCEE Organizing Committee, Japan Association for Earthquake Disaster Prevention, Tokyo, Vol. IV, pp. IV-133 - IV-138. Summary
Kawano & Matsui 1997 Composite Construction in Steel and Concrete III Kawano, A. and Matsui, C. (1997). “Buckling Behavior and Aseismic Properties of Concrete-Filled Tubular Members under Cyclic Axial Loading,” Composite Construction in Steel and Concrete III, Buckner, C. D. and Shahrooz, B. M. (eds.), Proceedings of the Engineering Foundation Conference, Irsee, Germany, June 9-14, 1996, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, New York, pp. 602-615. Summary
Kawano & Matsui 1997 Composite Construction in Steel and Concrete III Kawano, A. and Matsui, C. (1997). “New Connections Using Vertical Stiffeners Between H-Shaped Beams and Hollow or Concrete-filled Square Tubular Columns,” Composite Construction in Steel and Concrete III, Buckner, C. D. and Shahrooz, B. M. (eds.), Proceedings of the Engineering Foundation Conference, Irsee, Germany, June 9-14, 1996, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, New York, pp. 172-185. Summary
Kenarangi & Bruneau 2020 Investigation of Cyclic-Shear Behavior of Circular-Reinforced Concrete-Filled Steel Tubes Kenarangi, H., and Bruneau, M. (2020). “Investigation of Cyclic-Shear Behavior of Circular-Reinforced Concrete-Filled Steel Tubes” Journal of Structural Engineering, 146(5) doi:10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943- 541X.0002598. Summary
Kilpatrick & Rangan 1997 Composite Construction—Conventional and Innovative Kilpatrick, A. and Rangan, B. V. (1997). “Behaviour of High-Strength Composite Columns,” Composite Construction—Conventional and Innovative, Proceedings of the International Conference, Innsbruck, Austria, September 16-18, 1997, International Association of Bridge and Structural Engineers, Lausanne, Switzerland, pp. 789-794. Summary
Kim 2005 M.S. thesis Kim, D. K. (2005). “A Database for Composite Columns,” M.S. thesis, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia. Summary
Kitada, Yoshida, & Nakai 1987 Memoirs of the Faculty of Engineering Kitada, T., Yoshida, Y., and Nakai, H. (1987). “Fundamental Study on Elastoplastic Behavior of Concrete Encased Steel Short Tubular Columns,” Memoirs of the Faculty of Engineering, Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan, Vol. 28, pp. 237-253. Summary
Kitada & Nakai 1991 Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures Kitada, T. and Nakai, H. (1991). “Experimental Study on Ultimate Strength of Concrete-Filled Square Steel Short Members Subjected to Compression or Torsion,” Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Wakabayashi, M. (ed.), Fukuoka, Japan, September 26-29, 1991, Association for International Cooperation and Research in Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, pp. 137-142. Summary
Kitada 1992 Stability and Ductility of Steel Structures under Cyclic Loading Kitada, T. (1992). “Ductility and Ultimate Strength of Concrete-Filled Steel Members,” Stability and Ductility of Steel Structures under Cyclic Loading, Fukomoto, Y. and Lee, G. C. (eds.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 139-148. Summary
Klöppel & Goder 1957 Der Stahlbau Klöppel, K. and Goder, W. (1957). “Traglastversuche mit ausbetonierten Stahlrohen und Aufstellung einer Bemessungsformel,” Der Stahlbau, Berlin, Vol. 26, No. 1, January 1957. Summary
Knowles & Park 1969 Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE Knowles, R. B. and Park, R. (1969). “Strength of Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Columns,” Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 95, No. ST12, pp. 2565-2587. Summary
Knowles & Park 1970 Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE Knowles, R. B. and Park, R. (1970). “Axial Load Design for Concrete Filled Steel Tubes,” Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 96, No. ST10, pp. 2125-2153. Summary
Konno, Kei, & Nagashima 1990 Proceedings of IABSE Symposium Konno, K., Kei, T., and Nagashima, T. (1990). “Behavior of Concrete-Filled Square Steel Columns,” Proceedings of IABSE Symposium, Brussels, 1990. Summary
Lai & Varma 2018 High-Strength Rectangular CFT Members: Database, Modeling, and Design of Short Columns Lai, Z.,Varma, A. (2018) “High-Strength Rectangular CFT Members: Database, Modeling, and Design of Short Columns.” Journal of Structural Engineering, 144(5), May. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0002026 Summary
Lai, Varma & Griffis 2016 Analysis and Design of Noncompact and Slender CFT Beam-Columns Lai, Z., Varma, A., Griffis, L. (2016). “Analysis and Design of Noncompact and Slender CFT Beam-Columns.” Journal of Structural Engineering 142(1),pp. 1-14 doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0001349 Summary
Lee, Xu, Guon & Zhang 1991 Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures Lee, G., Xu, J., Guon, A., Zhang, K.C. (1991). “Experimental Studies on Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Short Columns Under Compression and Torsion,” Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Wakabayashi, M. (ed.), Fukuoka, Japan, September 26-29, 1991, Association for International Cooperation and Research in Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, pp. 143-148. Summary
Li, Han & Chan 2014 Journal of Construction Research Li, W., Han, L-H., Chan, T-M. (2014). “Tensile Behaviour of Concrete-Filled Double-Skin Steel Tubular Members.” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 99, August, pp. 35-46. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2014.03.011 Summary
Li, Han & Zhao 2012 Thin-Walled Structures Li, W., Han, L., and Zhao, X. (2012). “Axial Strength of Concrete-Filled Double Skin Steel Tubular (CFDST) Columns with Preload on Steel Tubes.” Thin-Walled Structures, 56, July, pp. 9–20. doi:10.1016/j.tws.2012.03.004 Summary
Liang 2009 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Liang, Q. (2009). "Performance-Based Analysis of Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Beam–Columns, Part I: Theory and Algorithms." Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 65(2), 363–372. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2008.03.007 Summary
Liao, Han & He 2011 Journal of Construction Steel Research Liao, F., Han, L., He, S. (2011). “Behavior of CFST Short Column and Beam with Initial Concrete Imperfection: Experiments.” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 67(12), December, pp. 1922-1935. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2011.06.009 Summary
Liew & Xiong 2009 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Liew, J. Y. R., and Xiong, D. X. (2009). “Effect of preload on the axial capacity of concrete-filled composite columns.” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 65(3), 709–722. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2008.03.023 Summary
Liu & Goel 1988 Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE Liu, Z. and Goel, S. C. (1988). “Cyclic Load Behavior of Concrete-Filled Tubular Braces,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 114, No. 7, pp. 1488-1506. Summary
Liu, Zhou, & Zhang 2008 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Liu, J., Zhou, X., and Zhang, S. (2008). “Seismic Behaviour of Square CFT Beam-Columns under Biaxial Bending Moment.” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 64(12), 1473–1482. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2008.01.013 Summary
Lu & Kennedy 1994 Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering Lu, Y. and Kennedy, D. (1994). “Flexural Behavior of Concrete-Filled Hollow Structural Sections,” Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 21, No. 1, February, pp. 11-130. Summary
Luksha & Nesterovich 1991 Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures Luksha, L. K. and Nesterovich, A. P. (1991). “Strength Testing of Large-Diameter Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Members,” Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Wakabayashi, M. (ed.), Fukuoka, Japan, September 26-29, 1991, Association for International Cooperation and Research in Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, pp. 67-72. Summary
Lundberg 1993 M.S. thesis Lundberg, J. E. (1993). “The Reliability of Composite Columns and Beam-Columns,” M.S. thesis, Structural Engineering Report 93-2, Department of Civil and Mineral Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Summary
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Marson & Bruneau 2004 Journal of Bridge Engineering, ASCE Marson, J., and Bruneau, M. (2004). “Cyclic Testing of Concrete-Filled Circular Steel Bridge Piers having Encased Fixed-Based Detail.” Journal of Bridge Engineering, ASCE, 9(1), 14–23. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1084-0702(2004)9:1(14) Summary
Masu, Adachi, Kawabata, Kobayashi & Konishi 1991 Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures Masuo, K., Adachi, M., Kawabata, K., Kobayashi, M., and Konishi, M. (1991). “Buckling Behavior of Concrete Filled Circular Steel Tubular Columns Using Light-Weight Concrete,” Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Wakabayashi, M. (ed.), Fukuoka, Japan, September 26-29, 1991, Association for International Cooperation and Research in Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, pp. 95-100. Summary
Matsui & Tsuda 1987 Proceedings of Pacific Conference on Earthquake Engineering Matsui, C. and Tsuda, K. (1987). “Strength and Behavior of Concrete-Filled Steel Square Tubular Columns with Large Width-Thickness Ratio,” Proceedings of Pacific Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 2, Wellington, New Zealand, pp. 1-9. Summary
Matsui & Kawano 1988 Proceedings of the International Specialty Conference on Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Structures Matsui, C. and Kawano, A. (1988). “Strength and Behavior of Concrete-Filled Tubular Trusses,” Proceedings of the International Specialty Conference on Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Structures, Harbin, China, August, pp. 113-119. Summary
Matsui, Tsuda, & El Din 1993 Proceedings of the 4th East Asia-Pacific Conference on Structural Engineering and Construction Matsui, C., Tsuda, K., and El Din, H. Z. (1993) “Stability Design of Slender Concrete Filled Steel Square Tubular Columns” Proceedings of the 4th East Asia-Pacific Conference on Structural Engineering and Construction, Vol. 1, pp. 317-322. Summary
Matsui, Tsuda, & Ishibashi 1995 Structural Steel Matsui, C., Tsuda, K., and Ishibashi, Y. (1995). “Slender Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Columns under Combined Compression and Bending,” Structural Steel, PSSC '95, Proceedings of the Fourth Pacific Structural Steel Conference, Shanmugam, N. E. and Choo, Y. S. (eds.), Singapore, October 25-27, 1995, Pergamon, Elsevier Science, Vol. 3, pp. 29-36. Summary
Nakahara & Sakino 1998 Proceedings of the Fifth Pacific Structural Steel Conference Nakahara, H. and Sakino, K. (1998). “Axial Compressive and Uniform Bending Tests of High Strength Concrete Filled Square Steel Tubular Columns,” Proceedings of the Fifth Pacific Structural Steel Conference, Seoul, Korea, October 13-16, 1998, pp. 943-948. Summary
Nakahara, Sakino, & Inai 1998 Transactions of the Japan Concrete Institute Nakahara, H., Sakino, K. and Inai, E. (1998). “Analytical Model For Compressive Behavior of Concrete Filled Square Steel Tubular Columns,” Transactions of the Japan Concrete Institute, Vol. 20, pp. 171-178. Summary
Nakahara & Sakino 2000a Proceedings of the Twelfth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering Nakahara, H. and Sakino, K. (2000a). “Flexural Behavior of Concrete Filled Square Steel Tubular Beam-Columns,” Proceedings of the Twelfth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Auckland, New Zealand, January. Summary
Nakahara & Sakino 2000b Composite and Hybrid Structures Nakahara, H. and Sakino, K. (2000b). “Practical Analysis for High Strength CFT Columns under Eccentric Compression,” Composite and Hybrid Structures, Proceedings of the Sixth ASCCS International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Xiao, Y. and Mahin, S. A. (eds.), Los Angeles, California, March 22-24, 2000, Association for International Cooperation and Research in Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Los Angeles, California, pp. 441-448. Summary
Neogi, Sen & Chapman 1969 The Structural Engineer Neogi, P. K., Sen, H. K., and Chapman, J. C. (1969). “Concrete-Filled Tubular Steel Columns Under Eccentric Loading,” The Structural Engineer, Vol. 47, No. 5, pp. 187-195. Summary
O'Shea & Bridge 1994 Preliminary Report O'Shea, M. D. and Bridge, R. Q. (1994). “Tests of Thin-Walled Concrete-Filled Steel Tubes,” Preliminary Report, Center for Advanced Structural Engineering, University of Sydney, Australia. Summary
O'Shea & Bridge 1997a Research Report No. R739 O'Shea, M. D. and Bridge, R. Q. (1997a). “Behaviour of Thin-Walled Box Sections with Lateral Restraint,” Research Report No. R739, School of Civil Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia, March. Summary
O'Shea & Bridge 1997b Research Report No. R740 O'Shea, M. D. and Bridge, R. Q. (1997b). “Local Buckling of Thin-Walled Circular Steel Sections with or without Lateral Restraint,” Research Report No. R740, School of Civil Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia, April. Summary
O'Shea & Bridge 1997c Research Report No. R754 O'Shea, M. D. and Bridge, R. Q. (1997c). “Tests on Circular Thin-Walled Steel Tubes Filled with Very High Strength Concrete,” Research Report No. R754, School of Civil Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia, November. Summary
O'Shea & Bridge 1997d Research Report No. R755 O'Shea, M. D. and Bridge, R. Q. (1997d). “Tests on Circular Thin-Walled Steel Tubes Filled with Medium and High Strength Concrete,” Research Report No. R755, School of Civil Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia, November. Summary
O'Shea & Bridge 1997e Research Report No. R758 O'Shea, M. D. and Bridge, R. Q. (1997e). “Design of Thin-Walled Concrete Filled Steel Tubes,” Research Report No. R758, School of Civil Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia, November. Summary
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Perea 2010 Ph.D. Dissertation Perea, T. (2010). “Analytical and Experimental Study on Slender Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Columns and Beam-Columns.” Ph.D. Dissertation, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia. Summary
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Rangan & Joyce 1992 American Concrete Institute Structural Journal Rangan, B. V. and Joyce, M. (1992). “Strength of Eccentrically Loaded Slender Steel Tubular Columns Filled with High-Strength Concrete,” American Concrete Institute Structural Journal, Vol. 18, No. 6, pp. 676-681. Summary
Roik & Bergmann 1992 Constructional Steel Design: An International Guide Roik, K. and Bergmann, R. (1992). “Composite Columns,” Constructional Steel Design: An International Guide, Dowling, P. J., Harding, J. E., and Bjorhovde, R. (eds.), Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd., London and New York, 1992. Summary
Sakino & Tomii 1981 Transactions of the Japan Concrete Institute Sakino, K. and Tomii, M. (1981). “Hysteretic Behavior of Concrete Filled Square Steel Tubular Beam-Columns Failed in Flexure,” Transactions of the Japan Concrete Institute, Vol. 3, pp. 439-446. Summary
Sakino & Ishibashi 1985 Transactions of the Architectural Institute of Japan Sakino, K. and Ishibashi, H. (1985). “Experimental Studies on Concrete Filled Square Steel Tubular Short Columns Subjected to Cyclic Shearing Force and Constant Axial Force,” Transactions of the Architectural Institute of Japan, No. 353, pp. 81-89. Summary
Sakino & Hayashi 1991 Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures Sakino, K. and Hayashi, H. (1991). “Behavior of Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Stub Columns Under Concentric Loading,” Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Wakabayashi, M. (ed.), Fukuoka, Japan, September 26-29, 1991, Association for International Cooperation and Research in Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, pp. 25-30. Summary
Sakino 1995 Proceedings of the Third Joint Technical Coordinating Committee Meeting Sakino, K. (1995). “Elastoplastic Behavior of Concrete Filled Circular Steel Tubular Beam-Columns,” Proceedings of the Third Joint Technical Coordinating Committee Meeting, U.S.-Japan Cooperative Research Program, Phase 5: Composite and Hybrid Structures, Honolulu, Hawaii, June 26-28, 1995, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia. Summary
Salani & Sims 1964 Journal of the American Concrete Institute Salani, H. R. and Sims, J. R. (1964). “Behavior of Mortar Filled Steel Tubes in Compression,” Journal of the American Concrete Institute, Vol. 61, No. 10, pp. 1271-1283. Summary
Sato, Saito, & Suzuki 1991 Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures Sato, T., Saito, Y., and Suzuki, K. (1991). “Force Contribution Analysis of Elements in Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Column Under Seismic Load,” Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Wakabayashi, M. (ed.), Fukuoka, Japan, September 26-29, 1991, Association for International Cooperation and Research in Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, pp. 125-130. Summary
Schneider 1998 Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE Schneider, S. P. (1998). “Axially Loaded Concrete-Filled Steel Tubes,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 124, No. 10, October, pp. 1125-1138. Summary
Shakir-Khalil & Zeghiche 1989 The Structural Engineer Shakir-Khalil, H. and Zeghiche, Z. (1989). “Experimental Behavior of Concrete-Filled Rolled Rectangular Hollow-Section Columns,” The Structural Engineer, Vol. 67, No. 19, pp. 345-353. Summary
Shakir-Khalil & Mouli 1990 The Structural Engineer Shakir-Khalil, H. and Mouli, M. (1990). “Further Tests on Concrete-Filled Rectangular Hollow-Section Columns,” The Structural Engineer, Vol. 68, No. 20, pp. 405-413. Summary
Shakir-Khalil 1991 Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures Shakir-Khalil, H. (1991). “Tests on Concrete-Filled Hollow Section Columns,” Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Wakabayashi, M. (ed.), Fukuoka, Japan, September 26-29, 1991, Association for International Cooperation and Research in Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, pp. 89-94. Summary
Shakir-Khalil 1994 Structural Engineering Review Shakir-Khalil, H. (1994). “Experimental Study of Concrete-Filled Rectangular Hollow Section Columns,” Structural Engineering Review, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 85-96. Summary
Shakir-Khalil & Al-Rawdan 1997 Composite Construction in Steel and Concrete III Shakir-Khalil, H. and Al-Rawdan, A. (1997). “Experimental Behavior and Numerical Modelling of Concrete-filled Rectangular Hollow Section Tubular Columns,” Composite Construction in Steel and Concrete III, Buckner, C. D. and Shahrooz, B. M. (eds.), Proceedings of the Engineering Foundation Conference, Irsee, Germany, June 9-14, 1996, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, New York, pp. 222-235. Summary
Structural Stability Research Council (SSRC), Task Group 20 1979 Composite Construction in Steel and Concrete III Structural Stability Research Council (SSRC), Task Group 20 (1979). “A Specification for the Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Columns,” Engineering Journal, AISC, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 101-115. Summary
Sugano, Nagashima, & Kei 1992 Proceedings of the ASCE Tenth Structures Congress '92 Sugano, S., Nagashima, T., and Kei, T. (1992). “Seismic Behavior of Concrete-Filled Tubular Steel Columns,” Proceedings of the ASCE Tenth Structures Congress '92, San Antonio, Texas, 13-16 April 1992, pp. 914-917. Summary
Tomii, Matsui, & Sakino 1973 Tokyo Regional Conference Tomii, M., Matsui, C., and Sakino, K. (1973). “Concrete Filled Steel Tube Structures.” Tokyo Regional Conference, IABSE-ASCE Tall Buildings Conference, Ch. 10, 1973. Summary
Tomii & Sakino 1979a Transactions of the Architectural Institute of Japan Tomii, M. and Sakino, K. (1979a). “Experimental Studies on the Ultimate Moment of Concrete Filled Square Steel Tubular Beam-Columns,” Transactions of the Architectural Institute of Japan, No. 275, January, pp. 55-63. Summary
Tomii & Sakino 1979b Transactions of the Architectural Institute of Japan Tomii, M. and Sakino, K. (1979b). “Elasto-Plastic Behavior of Concrete Filled Square Steel Tubular Beam-Columns,” Transactions of the Architectural Institute of Japan, No. 280, June, pp. 111-120. Summary
Tomii & Sakino 1979c Transactions of the Architectural Institute of Japan Tomii, M. and Sakino, K. (1979c). “Experimental Studies on Concrete Filled Square Steel Tubular Beam-Columns Subjected to Monotonic Shearing Force and Constant Axial Force,” Transactions of the Architectural Institute of Japan, No. 281, July, pp. 81-90. Summary
Tomii 1991 Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures Tomii, M. (1991). “Ductile and Strong Columns Composed of Steel Tube, Infilled Concrete, and Longitudinal Steel Bars,” Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Special Volumne, Wakabayashi, M. (ed.), Fukuoka, Japan, September 26-29, 1991, Association for International Cooperation and Research in Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, pp. 39-66. Summary
Tort & Hajjar 2004 Earthquake Spectra Tort, C. and Hajjar, J. F. (2004). “Damage Assessment of Rectangular Concrete-Filled Steel Tubes for Performance-Based Design,” Earthquake Spectra, Vol. 20, No. 4, November, pp. 1317-1348. Summary
Toshiyuki, Noguchi, & Mori 1996 Proceedings of the Third Joint Technical Coordinating Committee Meeting Toshiyuki, F., Noguchi, T., and Mori, O. (1996). “Evaluation of Deformation Capacity of Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular (CFT) Beam-Columns,” Proceedings of the Third Joint Technical Coordinating Committee Meeting, U.S.-Japan Cooperative Research Program, Phase 5: Composite and Hybrid Structures, Hong Kong, December 12-14, 1996, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia. Summary
Tsuda, Matsui, & Mino 1996 Proccedings of the Fifth International Colloquium on Structural Stability Tsuda, K., Matsui, C., and Mino, E. (1996). “Strength and Behavior of Slender Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Columns,” Stability Problems in Designing, Construction and Rehabilitation of Metal Structures, Proccedings of the Fifth International Colloquium on Structural Stability, SSRC IC/BRASIL ’96, Rio de Janerio, Brasil, August 5-7, 1996, Structural Stability Research Council, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, pp. 489-500. Summary
Tsuji, Nakashima, & Morita 1991 Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures Tsuji, B., Nakashima, M., and Morita, S. (1991). “Axial Compression Behavior of Concrete Filled Circular Steel Tubes,” Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Wakabayashi, M. (ed.), Fukuoka, Japan, September 26-29, 1991, Association for International Cooperation and Research in Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, pp. 19-24. Summary
Xu, Zhou, & Lee 1991 Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures Xu, J., Zhou, J., and Lee, G. (1991). “Experimental Studies on Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Medium and Long Columns Under Compression and Torsion,” Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Wakabayashi, M. (ed.), Fukuoka, Japan, September 26-29, 1991, Association for International Cooperation and Research in Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, pp. 159-164. Summary
Uy, Tao & Han 2011 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Uy, B., Tao, Z., and Han, L. (2011) “Behaviour of Short and Slender Concrete-Filled Stainless Steel Tubular Columns.” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 67(3), March, pp. 360–378. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2010.10.004 Summary
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Varma, Hull, Ricles, Sause & Lu 1998a Proceedings of the Sixth U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering Varma, A. H., Hull, B. K., Ricles, J. M., Sause, R., and Lu, L. W. (1998a). “Behavior of High Strength Square CFT Columns,” Proceedings of the Sixth U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Seattle, Washington, May 31-June 4, 1998, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Oakland, California. Summary
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Varma, Hull, Ricles, Sause & Lu 1999 Proceedings of the Annual Technical Session and Meeting, Atlanta Varma, A. H., Hull, B. K., Ricles, J. M., Sause, R., and Lu, L.-W. (1999). “High Strength Square CFT Columns: An Experimental Perspective,” Proceedings of the Annual Technical Session and Meeting, Atlanta, Georgia, September 21-23, 1998, Structural Stability Research Council, Gainesville, Florida, pp. 205-218. Summary
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Varma, Ricles, Sause & Lu 2000 Composite and Hybrid Structures Varma, A. H., Ricles, J. M., Sause, R., and Lu, L.-W. (2000). “Seismic Behavior of High Strength Square CFT Beam-Columns,” Composite and Hybrid Structures, Proceedings of the Sixth ASCCS International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Xiao, Y. and Mahin, S. A. (eds.), Los Angeles, California, March 22-24, 2000, Association for International Cooperation and Research in Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Los Angeles, California, pp. 547-556. Summary
Varma, Ricles, Sause, Hull & Lu 2000 Composite and Hybrid Systems Varma, A. H., Ricles, J. M., Sause, R., Hull, B. K., and Lu, L. W. (2000). “An Experimental Evaluation of High-Strength Square CFT Columns,” Composite and Hybrid Systems, ACI SP-196, Aboutaha, R. S. and Bracci, J . M. (eds.), American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Michigan. Summary
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Varma, Ricles & Sause 2001c Proceedings of the 2001 Annual Technical Session and Meeting Varma, A. H., Ricles, J. M., and Sause, R. (2001c). “Seismic Behavior of High Strength Square CFT Beam-Columns,” Proceedings of the 2001 Annual Technical Session and Meeting, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, May 9-12, 2001, Structural Stability Research Council, Gainesville, Florida, 2001, pp. 459-480. Summary
Varma, Ricles, Sause & Lu 2002 Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE Varma, A. H., Ricles, J. M., Sause, R., and Lu, L.-W. (2002). “Experimental Behavior of High Strength Square Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Beam-Columns,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 128, No. 3, March, pp. 309-318. Summary
Varma, Ricles, Sause & Lu 2004 Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE Varma, A. H., Ricles, J. M., Sause, R., and Lu, L.-W. (2004). “Seismic Behavior and Design of High-Strength Square Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Beam Columns,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 130, No. 2, February, pp. 169-179. Summary
Wang, Han & Hou 2013 Journal of Construction Steel Research Wang, R. Han, L., and Hou, C. (2013). “Behavior of Concrete Filled Steel Tubular (CFST) Members under Lateral Impact: Experiment and FEA Model.” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 80, January, pp. 188–201. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2012.09.003 Summary
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Supplementary References

Box Columns: Filled and Hollow

Author(s) Year Publication Reference Links
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Han & Yao 2004 Thin-Walled Structures Han, L.-H. and Yao, G.-H. (2004). “Experimental Behaviour of Thin-Walled Hollow Structural Steel (HSS) Columns Filled with Self-Consolidating Concrete (SCC) ,” Thin-Walled Structures, Vol. 42, pp. 1357-1377.
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Kumar & Usami 1996 Engineering Structures Kumar, S. and Usami, T. (1996). “An Evolutionary-Degrading Hysteretic Model for Thin-Walled Steel Structures,” Engineering Structures, Vol. 18, No. 7, pp. 504-514.
Kumar & Usami 1996 Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE Kumar, S. and Usami, T. (1996). “Damage Evaluation in Steel Box Columns by Cyclic Loading Tests,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 122, No. 6, June, pp. 626-634.
Kumar & Usami 1996 Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE Kumar, S. and Usammi, T. (1996). “Damage Evaluation in Steel Box Columns by Pseudodynamic Tests,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 122, No. 6, June, pp. 635-642.
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Mashiri & Zhao 2010 Thin-Walled Structures Mashiri, F.R. and Zhao, X.-L. (2010). "Square Hollow Section (SHS) T-Joints with Concrete-Filled Chords Subjected to In-Plane Fatigue Loading in the Brace," Thin-Walled Structures, 48 (2), pp. 150-158. doi:10.1016/j.tws.2009.07.010
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Mursi & Uy 2004 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Mursi, M. and Uy, B. (2004). “Strength of Slender Concrete Filled High Strength Steel Box Columns,” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 60, pp. 1825-1848.
Nakanishi, Kitada, & Nakai 1996 Steel-Concrete Composite Structures Nakanishi, K., Kitada, T., and Nakai, H. (1996). “Experimental Study on Deterioration of Ultimate Strength and Ductility of Damaged Concrete Filled Steel Box Columns,” Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Javor, T. (ed.), Kosice, Slovakia, June 20-23, 1994, Association for International Cooperation and Research in Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Expertcentrum, Bratislava, Slovakia, pp. 127-130.
Rajaran & Usami 1996 NUCE Research Report No. 9602 Rajaran, S. K. and Usami, T. (1996). “Inelastic Seismic Response Analysis of Thin-Walled Steel Bridge Piers,” NUCE Research Report No. 9602, Department of Civil Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan, March, pp. 144.
Ricles, Lu, Green, Tiberi, Pang & Dexter 1993 Proceedings of the SSRC Annual Technical Session Ricles, J. M., Lu, L.-W., Green, P. S., Tiberi, R., Pang, A. K., and Dexter, R. J. (1993). “Capacity of High-Strength Thin-Walled Box Columns,” Proceedings of the SSRC Annual Technical Session, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, April 5-6, 1993, SSRC, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, pp. 115-139.
Sakimoto & Watanabe 1997 Proceedings of the Annual Technical Session and Meeting Sakimoto, T. and Watanabe, H. (1997). “Simplified Methods of Analysis for Cyclic Behavior of Steel Box Beam-Columns,” Proceedings of the Annual Technical Session and Meeting, Toronto, Canada, June 9-11, 1997, Structural Stablity Research Council, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, pp. 265-276.
Shanmugam, Lakshmi, & Uy 2002 Engineering Structures Shanmugam, N. E., Lakshmi, B., and Uy, B. (2002). “An Analytical Model for Thin-Walled Steel Box Columns with Concrete In-Fill,” Engineering Structures, Vol. 24, pp. 825-838.
Shanmugam, Ting, & Lee 1993 The Structural Engineer Shanmugam, N. E., Ting, L. C., and Lee, S. L. (1993). “Static Behaviour of I-Beam to Box-Column Connections with External Stiffeners,” The Structural Engineer, Vol. 9, No. 3, August 3, pp. 269-275.
Shanmugam, Ting, & Lee 1994 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Shanmugam, N. E., Ting, L. C., and Lee, S. L. (1994). “Non-Linear Analysis of I-Beam to Box-Column Connections,” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 257-278.
Shanmugam & Ting 1996 Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE Shanmugam, N. E. and Ting, L. C., (1996). “Welded Interior Box-Column to I-Beam Connections,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 121, No. 5, May, pp. 824-830.
Suzuki & Kato 1985 Composite and Mixed Construction Suzuki, H. and Kato, B. (1985). “Shear Strengths of Concrete-Filled Steel Box Elements,” Composite and Mixed Construction, Proceedings of the U.S.-Japan Joint Seminar on Composite and Mixed Construction, Roeder, C. W. (ed.), University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, July 18-20, 1984, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, New York, pp. 254-266.
Tao, Han, & Wang 2007 Thin-Walled Structures Tao, Z., Han, L.-H., and Wang, D.-Y. (2007). “Experimental Behaviour of Concrete-Filled Stiffened Thin-Walled Steel Tubular Columns,” Thin-Walled Structures, Vol. 45, pp. 517-527.
Tao, Han, & Wang 2008 Thin-Walled Structures Tao, Z., Han, L.-H., and Wang, D.-Y. (2008). “Strength and Ductility of Stiffened Thin-Walled Hollow Steel Structural Stub Columns Filled With Concrete.” Thin-Walled Structures, 46(10), 1113-1128. doi:10.1016/j.tws.2008.01.007
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Tsai 1992 D164 Tsai, K.-C. (1992). “Design of Steel Beam-to-Box Column Connections for Seismic Load,” D164, pp. 365-374.
Usami & Fukumoto 1982 Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE Usami, T. and Fukumoto, Y. (1982). “Local and Overall Buckling of Welded Box Columns,” Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol 108, No. 3, pp. 525-542.
Usami & Fukumoto 1984 Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE Usami, T. and Fukumoto, Y. (1984). “Welded Box Compression Members,” Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol 110, No. 10, pp. 2457-2470.
Usami & Ge 1994 Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE Usami, T. and Ge, H. (1994). “Ductility of Concrete-Filled Steel Box Columns under Cyclic Loading,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 120, No. 7, July, pp. 2021-2040.
Uy & Bradford 1994 Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Steel Structures: The Steel Advantage Uy, B. and Bradford, M. A. (1994). “Local Buckling of Composite Steel-Concrete Rectangular Columns,” Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Steel Structures: The Steel Advantage, Jakarta, Indonesia, pp. 313-321.
Uy & Bradford 1995 Proceedings of the International Conference on Structural Stability and Design Uy, B. and Bradford, M. A. (1995). “Local and Post-Local Buckling of Steel Plates in Composite Construction Structural Stability and Design:” Proceedings of the International Conference on Structural Stability and Design, Kitipornchai, S., Hancock, G. J., and Bradford, M. A. (eds.), Sydney, Australia, 30 October 1-November 1995, A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 289-294.
Uy & Patil 1996 Structural Design of Tall Buildings Uy, B. and Patil, S. B. (1996). “Concrete Filled High Strength Steel Box Columns for Tall Buildings: Behaviour and Design,” Structural Design of Tall Buildings, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 75-94.
Uy 1996 Proceedings of the International Conference on Advances in Steel Structures Uy, B. (1996). “Behaviour and Design of High Strength Steel-Concrete Filled Box Columns,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Advances in Steel Structures, Hong Kong, pp. 455-460.
Uy 1996 Australian Civil/Structural Engineering Transactions Uy, B. (1996). “Behaviour and Design of Thin-Walled Concrete-Filled Box Columns,” Australian Civil/Structural Engineering Transactions, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 31-38.
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Uy 1997 Composite Construction -- Conventional and Innovative Uy, B. (1997). “Ductility and Strength of Thin-Walled Concrete Filled Box Columns,” Composite Construction -- Conventional and Innovative, Proceedings of the International Conference, Innsbruck, Austria, September 16-18, 1997, International Association of Bridge and Structural Engineers, Lausanne, Switzerland, pp. 801-806.
Uy 1998 Progress in Structural Engineering and Materials Uy, B. (1998). “Concrete-Filled Fabricated Steel Box Columns for Multistory Buildings,” Progress in Structural Engineering and Materials, Vol. 1, No. 2, January, pp. 150-158.
Uy 1998 Structural Design of Tall Buildings Uy, B. (1998). “Ductility, Strength and Stability of Concrete-Filled Fabricated Steel Box Columns for Tall Buildings,” Structural Design of Tall Buildings, Vol. 7, No. 2, June, pp. 113-133.
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Uy & Das 1999 Thin-Walled Structures Uy, B. and Das, S. (1999). “Bracing of Thin Walled Steel Box Columns during Pumping of Wet Concrete in Tall Buildings,” Thin-Walled Structures, Vol. 33, No. 2, February, pp. 127-154.
Uy 2000 Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE Uy, B. (2000). “Strength of Concrete Filled Steel Box Columns Incorporating Local Buckling,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 126, No. 3, March, pp. 341-352.
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Yu, Zha, Ye & She 2010 Engineering Structures Yu, M., Zha, X., Ye, J., and She, C. (2010). "A Unified Formulation for Hollow and Solid Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Columns Under Axial Compression," Engineering Structures, 32 (4), pp. 1046-1053. doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2009.12.031
Zhang & Guo 2007 Advances in Structural Engineering Zhang, S., and Guo, L. (2007). “Behaviour of High Strength Concrete-Filled Slender RHS Steel Tubes.” Advances in Structural Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 337-351

Combined SRC/CFT Beam-Columns

Author(s) Year Publication Reference Links
Abdullah, Zhang, & Liu 2009 Thin-Walled Structures Abdullah, J., Zhang, S., and Liu, J. (2009). "Shear Strength and Behavior of Tubed Reinforced and Steel Reinforced Concrete (TRC and TSRC) Short Columns." Thin-Walled Structures, 48(3), pp. 191-199. doi:10.1016/j.tws.2009.11.002
Abdullah, Zhang, & Liu 2010 Journal of Harbin Institute of Technology (New Series) Abdullah, J., Zhang, S., and Liu, J. (2009). "Axial Compressive Behavior and Design Method of Tubed Circular Steel Reinforced Concrete Short Columns." Journal of Harbin Institute of Technology (New Series), 17(1), 1-7.
Chang, Wei, & Yun 2012 Construction and Building Materials Chang, X., Wei, Y.-Y., and Yun, Y.-C. (2012). "Analysis of Steel-Reinforced Concrete-Filled-Steel Tubular (SRCFST) Columns Under Cyclic Loading." Construction and Building Materials, 28 (1), pp. 88-95. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.08.033
Chen, Suswanto, & Lin 2009 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Chen, C.-C., Suswanto, B., and Lin, Y.-J. (2009). "Behavior and Strength of Steel Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joints with Single-Side Force Inputs." Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 65 (8-9), pp. 1569-1581. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2009.04.003
Han, Liao, Tao & Hong 2009 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Han L.-H., Liao F.-Y., Tao Z., and Hong Z. (2009). "Performance of Concrete Filled Steel Tube Reinforced Concrete Columns Subjected to Cyclic Bending," Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 65 (8-9), pp. 1607-1616. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2009.03.013
Lai, Varma & Griffis 2015 Structures Congress 2015 Lai, Z., Varma, A., Griffis, L. 2015. P-M Interaction Equations for Design of CFT Beam-Columns. In: Structures Congress 2015. [online] ASCE, pp.1032-1041. doi:10.1061/9780784479117.088
Liu & Li 2011 Applied Mechanics and Materials Liu, X. and Li, M. (2011). "On the Stress-Strain of Steel Tube Column Filled with Steel-Reinforced Concrete Subject to Compression-Flexure Loading," Applied Mechanics and Materials, v. 71-78, Frontiers of Green Building, Materials and Civil Engineering, pp. 3855-3860. doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.71-78.3855
Miyauchi 1994 Steel-Concrete Composite Structures Miyauchi, Y., Higashibata, Y., Nagashima, T., and Aso, N. (1994). “Behavior of Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns with Small Circular Steel Tube,” Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Javor, T. (ed.), Kosice, Slovakia, June 20-23, 1994, Association for International Cooperation and Research in Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Expertcentrum, Bratislava, Slovakia, pp. 96-100.
Sakai & Matsui 1994 Steel-Concrete Composite Structures Sakai, J. and Matsui, C. (1994) “Strength and Behavior of Mixed Structures” Proceedings of the 4th ASCCS International Conference, pp. 40-42.
Shim, Chung, & Han 2008 Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Structures and Buildings Shim, C. S., Chung, Y. S., and Han, J. H. (2008). “Cyclic Response of Concrete-Encased Composite Columns with Low Steel Ratio.” Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Structures and Buildings, 161(2), 77-89. doi:10.1680/stbu.2008.161.2.77
Weng, Yin, Wang & Liang 2008 Science in China Series E: Technological Sciences Weng, C. C., Yin, Y. L., Wang, J. C., and Liang, C. Y. (2008). "Seismic Cyclic Loading Test of SRC Columns Confined with 5-Spirals," Science in China Series E: Technological Sciences, 51(5), 529-555. doi:10.1007/s11431-008-0067-z
Wen-Zhong Zheng and Heng-Yan Xie 2008 Science in China Series E: Technological Sciences Zheng, W.-Z. and Xie, H.-Y. (2009). "Experimental Research and Analysis on Encased Steel Box Concrete Beams," Advances in Structural Engineering, 12(2), 211-230. doi:10.1260/136943309788251669
Zhou & Liu 2010 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Zhou X., and Liu J. (2010). "Seismic Behavior and Strength of Tubed Steel Reinforced Concrete (SRC) Short Columns," Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 66 (7), pp. 885-896. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2010.01.020
Zhu, Liu, Wang & Feng 2010 Engineering Structures Zhu, M., Liu, J., Wang, Q., and Feng, X. (2010). "Experimental Research on Square Steel Tubular Columns Filled With Steel-Reinforced Self-Consolidating High-Strength Concrete Under Axial Load," Engineering Structures, 32 (8), pp. 2278-2286. doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2010.04.002

Sandwich Tubes

Author(s) Year Publication Reference
Goode, Montagu, & Nash 1996 Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers Goode, C. D., Montague, P., and Nash, T. (1996). “Large Reinforced Concrete Cylinders under External Pressure,” Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Vol. 116, No. 2, May, pp. 163-173.
Han, Lee & Kang 2007 Proceedings of the Eighth Pacific Structural Steel Conference Han, T. H., Lee, C.-S., Kang, J.-O., and Kang, Y.-J. (2007). “Development of a Nonlinear Model for an Internally Confined Hollow CFT Column.” Proceedings of the Eighth Pacific Structural Steel Conference, Wairakei, New Zealand.
Han, Li, & Liao 2011 Thin-Walled Structures Han, L.-H., Li, Y.-J., and Liao, F.-Y. (2011). “Concrete-Filled Double Skin Steel tubular (CFDST) Columns Subjected to Long-Term Sustained Loading.” Thin-Walled Structures, 49(12), 1534–1543. doi:10.1016/j.tws.2011.08.001
Han, Stallings, & Kang 2010 Construction and Building Materials Han, T. H., Stallings, J. M. and Kang, Y. J. (2010). “Nonlinear Concrete Model for Double-Skinned Composite Tubular Columns.” Construction and Building Materials, 24(12), 2542–2553. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.06.001
Huang, Han, Tao & Zha 2010 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Huang, H., Han, L.-H., Tao, Z., and Zhao, X.-L. (2010). "Analytical Behaviour of Concrete-Filled Couble Skin Steel Tubular (CFDST) stub columns," Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 66 (4), pp. 542-555. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2009.09.014
Konno, Ueda, Kakuta & Ohira 1994 Transactions of the Japan Concrete Institute Konno, K., Ueda, T., Kakuta, Y., and Ohira, M. (1994). “Experimental Evaluation of Characteristics in Compression of Concrete Column Encased by Double Steel Tubes,” Transactions of the Japan Concrete Institute, Vol. 16, pp. 379-386.
Li, Han, and Zhao 2012 Thin-Walled Structures Li, W., Han, L.-H., and Zhao, X.-L. (2012). “Axial Strength of Concrete-Filled Double Skin Steel Tubular (CFDST) Columns With Preload on Steel Tubes.” Thin-Walled Structures, 56, 9–20. doi:10.1016/j.tws.2012.03.004
Li, Ren, Han & Zhao 2012 Thin-Walled Structures Li, W., Ren, Q.-X., Han, L.-H., and Zhao, X.-L. (2012). “Behaviour of Tapered Concrete-Filled Double Skin Steel Tubular (CFDST) Stub Columns.” Thin-Walled Structures, 57, 37–48. doi:10.1016/j.tws.2012.03.019
Lushka & Cherkasov 1994 Steel-Concrete Composite Structures Luksha, L. K. and Cherkasov, D. V. (1994). “Strength Calculation of Composite Steel-Concrete Tubular Elements with Hollow Concrete Core under Compression with Torsion,” Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Javor, T. (ed.), Kosice, Slovakia, June 20-23, 1994, Association for International Cooperation and Research in Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Expertcentrum, Bratislava, Slovakia, pp. 143-146.
Montague, Nash, & Goode 1996 Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers Montague, P., Nash, T., and Goode, C. D. (1996). “Large Steel-Concrete Composite Cylinders under External Pressure,” Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Vol. 116, No. 2, May, pp. 174-185.
Storozhenko, Kharchenko, & Taranovsky 1994 Steel-Concrete Composite Structures Storozhenko, L., Kharchenko, S., and Taranovsky, O. (1994). “The Behaviour Pecularities of Compressed Concrete Steel Tubular Columns with Centrifuged Cores,” Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Javor, T. (ed.), Kosice, Slovakia, June 20-23, 1994, Association for International Cooperation and Research in Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Expertcentrum, Bratislava, Slovakia, pp. 147-150.
Tan & Zhang 2010 International Journal of Mechanics and Materials in Design Tan, K. H. and Zhang Y. F. (2010). “Compressive Stiffness and Strength of Concrete Filled Double Skin (CHS inner & CHS outer) Tubes.” International Journal of Mechanics and Materials in Design, 6(3), 283-291. doi:10.1007/s10999-010-9138-y
Uenaka, Kitoh, & Sonoda 2008 Steel & Composite Structures Uenaka, K., Kitoh, H., and Sonoda, K. (2008). “Concrete Filled Double Skin Tubular Members Subjected to Bending.” Steel & Composite Structures, 8(4), 297-312.
Uenaka, Kitoh, & Sonoda 2010 Thin-Walled Structures Uenaka, K., Kitoh, H., and Sonoda, K. (2010). "Concrete Filled Double Skin Circular Stub Columns Under Compression," Thin-Walled Structures, 48 (1), pp. 19-24. doi:10.1016/j.tws.2009.08.001
Uenaka & Kitoh 2010 Thin-Walled Structures Uenaka, K. and Kitoh, H. (2010). "Mechanical Behavior of Concrete Filled Double Skin Tubular Circular Deep Beams," Thin-Walled Structures, 49 (2), pp. 256-263. 10.1016/j.tws.2010.10.005
Uenaka & Kitoh 2012 Tubular Structures XIV Uenaka, K. and Kitoh, H. (2012). "Concrete Filled Double Skin Circular Tubular Members Subjected to Pure Bending and Centric Compressive Loading," Tubular Structures XIV - Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Tubular Structures, ISTS 2012, 81-87.
Valls & Carreras 2012 Tubular Structures XIV Valls, A. A. and Carreras, J. M. (2012). "Concrete Filled Double Skin Asymmetric Tube Sections Subjected to Pure Bending," Tubular Structures XIV - Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Tubular Structures, ISTS 2012, 103-110.
Wei, Mau, Vipulanandan & Mantrala 1994 1994 Annual Task Group Technical Session: Reports on Current Research Activities Wei, S., Mau, S. T., Vipulanandan, C., and Mantrala, S. K. (1994). “Performance of a New Sandwich Tube under Axial Loading, 1994 Annual Task Group Technical Session: Reports on Current Research Activities, June 20, 1994, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, Structural Stability Research Council, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, pp. 223-238.
Wei, Mau, Vipulanandan & Mantrala 1995 Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE Wei, S., Mau, S. T., Vipulanandan, C., and Mantrala, S. K. (1995). “Performance of New Sandwich Tube under Axial Loading: Experiment,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 121, No. 12, December, pp. 1806-1814. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1995)121:12(1806)
Wei, Mau, Vipulanandan & Mantrala 1995 Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE Wei, S., Mau, S. T., Vipulanandan, C., and Mantrala, S. K. (1995). “Performance of New Sandwich Tube under Axial Loading: Model,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 121, No. 12, December, pp. 1815-1821. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1995)121:12(1815)
Yang, Xu, & Peng 2008 Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China Yang, J., Xu, H., Peng, G., (2008). "Behavior of Concrete-Filled Double Skin Steel Tubular Columns with Octagon Section Under Axial Compression," Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China, Vol. 2, No. 3., pp. 205-210. doi:10.1007/s11709-008-0035-5
Yang, Han, & Sun 2012 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Yang, Y.-F., Han, L.-H., and Sun, B.-H., (2012). "Experimental Behaviour of Partially Loaded Concrete Filled Double-Skin Steel Tube (CFDST) Sections," Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 71, 63-73. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2011.11.005
Yu, Teng, Wong & Dong 2008 American Institute of Concrete Yu, T., Teng, J. G., Wong, W. L., and Dong, S. L. (2008). "Hybrid FRP Concrete Steel Double-Skin Tubular Columns: An Overview of Existing Research," American Institute of Concrete, ACI Special Publication, 257, pp. 177-193.
Yuan & Yang 2013 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Yuan, Y.-B., and Yang, J. J. (2013). “Experimental and Numerical Studies of Short Concrete-Filled Double Skin Composite Tube Columns Under Axially Compressive Loads,” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 80, 23-31. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2012.09.014
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CFT Beam-Columns: Analyses

Author(s) Year Publication Reference Links
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CFT Beam-Columns: Experiments

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Zhao & Packer 2009 Thin-Walled Structures Zhao X.L., Packer J.A., (2009). " Tests and Design of Concrete-Filled Elliptical Hollow Section Stub Columns," Thin-Walled Structures, 47 (6-7), pp. 617-628. doi:10.1016/j.tws.2008.11.004
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Zhou, Chen, & Liu 2012 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Zhou, T., Chen, Z., and Liu, H. (2012). “Seismic Behavior of Special Shaped Column Composed of Concrete Filled Steel Tubes.” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 75, 131–141. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2012.03.015
Zhou, Cao, He & Liu 2009 Proceedings of the 9th International Conference of Chinese Transportation Professionals Zhou, X., Cao, G., He, R., and Liu, X. (2009). “Study on Long-Term Behavior and Ultimate Strength of CFST Columns.” Proceedings of the 9th International Conference of Chinese Transportation Professionals, ICCTP 2009, 358, 2239–2248. doi:10.1061/41064(358)314
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CFT Members with Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Polymer

Author(s) Year Publication Reference
Dong, Wang, and Guan 2013 Engineering Structures Dong, J. F., Wang, Q. Y., and Guan, Z. W. (2013). “Structural Behaviour of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Filled Steel Tube Columns Strengthened by CFRP.” Engineering Structures, 48, 532-542. doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2012.11.006
He, Dong, Wang & Chen 2011 2011 International Conference on Multimedia Technology (ICMT) He, D., Dong, J., Wang, Q., Chen, X. (2011). “Mechanical Behaviour of Recycled Concrete Filled Steel Tube Conlumns Strengthened by CFRP.” 2011 International Conference on Multimedia Technology (ICMT), pp. 1110 - 1113. doi:10.1109/ICMT.2011.6002838
Karimi, El-Dakhakhni, & Tait 2012 Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities Karimi, K., El-Dakhakhni, W., and Tait, M. (2012). ”Behavior of Slender Steel-Concrete Composite Columns Wrapped with FRP Jackets.” Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, 26(5), 590–599. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)CF.1943-5509.0000280
Karimi, Tait, & El-Dakhakhni 2013 Engineering Structures Karimi, K., Tait, M., and El-Dakhakhni, W. (2013). ”Analytical Modeling and Axial Load Design of a Novel FRP-Encased Steel–Concrete Composite Column for Various Slenderness Ratios.” Engineering Structures, 46, 526–534. doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2012.08.016
Li, Chen, Bisby, Hu & Teng 2012 International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics Li, S. Q., Chen, J. F., Bisby, L. A., Hu, Y. M., and Teng, J. G. (2012). "Strain Efficiency of FRP Jackets in FRP-Confined Concrete-Filled Circular Steel Tubes," International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics, 12(1), 75-94. doi:10.1142/S0219455412004574
Park, Hong, & Choi 2010 Steel & Composite Structures Park, J., Hong, Y., and Choi, S. (2010). “Behaviors of Concrete Filled Square Steel Tubes Confined by Carbon Fiber Sheets (CFS) under Compression and Cyclic Loads.” Steel & Composite Structures, 10(2), pp. 187-205.
Sundarraja & Prabhu 2012 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Sundarraja, M. C., and Prabhu, G. G. (2012). “Experimental Study on CFST Members Strengthened by CFRP Composites under Compression.” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 72, 75–83. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2011.10.014
Sundarraja & Prabhu 2012 Thin-Walled Structures Sundarraja, M. C., and Prabhu, G. G. (2012). “Finite Element Modelling of CFRP Jacketed CFST Members under Flexural Loading.” Thin-Walled Structures, 49, 1483-1491. doi:10.1016/j.tws.2011.07.008
Sundarraja & Prabhu 2012 Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites Sundarraja, M. C., and Prabhu, G. G. (2012). “Investigation on Strengthening of CFST Members Under Compression Using CFRP Composites.” Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 30(15), 1251-1264. doi:10.1177/0731684411418018
Teng, Hu, and Yu 2013 Engineering Structures Teng, J. G., Hu, Y. M., and Yu, T. (2013). “Stress–Strain Model for Concrete in FRP-Confined Steel Tubular Columns.” Engineering Structures, 49, 156-167. doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2012.11.001
Yan & Yali 2012 Journal of Composites for Construction Yan, X. and Yali, S. (2012). ”Impact Behaviors of CFT and CFRP Confined CFT Stub Columns.” Journal of Composites for Construction, 16(6), 662–670. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)CC.1943-5614.0000294

CFT Members Constructed with Stainless Steel

Author(s) Year Publication Reference
Chang, Ru, Zhou & Zhang 2013 Thin-Walled Structures Chang, X., Ru, Z. L., Zhou W., and Zhang, Y.-B. (2013). "Study on Concrete-Filled Stainless Steel–Carbon Steel Tubular (CFSCT) Stub Columns under Compression." Thin-Walled Structures, 63, 125–133. doi:10.1016/j.tws.2012.10.002
Dabon, El-Boghdadi, & Hassanein 2009 Engineering Structures Dabaon, M. A., El-Boghdadi, M. H., and Hassanein, M. F. (2009). “Experimental Investigation on Concrete-Filled Stainless Steel Stiffened Tubular Stub Columns.” Engineering Structures, 31(2), 300-307. doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2008.08.017
Dabon, El-Khoriby, El-Bodhdadi & Hassanein 2009 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Dabaon, M., El-Khoriby, S., El-Boghdadi, M., and Hassanein M.F. (2009). "Confinement Effect of Stiffened and Unstiffened Concrete-Filled Stainless Steel Tubular Stub Columns." Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 65 (8-9), pp. 1846-1854. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2009.04.012
Dai & Lam 2010 Steel & Composite Structures Dai, X. and Lam, D. (2010). "Axial Compressive Behaviour of Stub Concrete-filled Columns with Elliptical Stainless-Steel Hollow Sections," Steel & Composite Structures, Vol. 10, No. 6, pp 517 – 539.
Ellobody 2013 Thin-Walled Structures Ellobody, E. (2013). “Numerical Modelling of Fibre Reinforced Concrete-Filled Stainless Steel Tubular Columns.” Thin-Walled Structures, 63, 1–12. doi:10.1016/j.tws.2012.10.005
Ellobody & Ghazy 2012 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Ellobody, E., and Ghazy, M. F. (2012). “Experimental Investigation of Eccentrically Loaded Fibre Reinforced Concrete-Filled Stainless Steel Tubular Columns.” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 76, 167–176. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2012.04.001
Ellobody & Young 2006 Engineering Structures Ellobody, E. and Young, B. (2006). “Design and Behaviour of Concrete-Filled Cold-Formed Stainless Steel Tube Columns,” Engineering Structures, Vol. 28, pp. 716-728. doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2005.09.023
Feng & Young 2009 Thin-Walled Structures Feng R., Young B. (2009). "Behaviour of Concrete-Filled Stainless Steel Tubular X-Joints Subjected to Compression." Thin-Walled Structures, 47 (4), pp. 365-374. doi:10.1016/j.tws.2008.09.006
Hassanein 2010 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Hassanein, M.F. (2010). "Numerical Modelling of Concrete-Filled Lean Duplex Slender Stainless Steel Tubular Stub Columns," Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 66 (8-9), pp. 1057-1068. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2010.03.008
Lam & Roach 2006 Tubular Structures XI Lam, D., and Roach, C. (2006). “Axial Capacity of Concrete Filled Stainless Steel Circular Columns,” Tubular Structures XI, Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium and IIW International Conference on Tubular Structures, Packer, J. A. and Willibald, S. (eds.), Québec City, Canada, 31 August-2 September 2006, Taylor & Francis, Leiden, The Netherlands, pp. 495-501.
Lam, Gardner, & Burdett 2010 Advances in Structural Engineering Lam, D., Gardner, L., and Burdett, M. (2010). "Behaviour of Axially Loaded Concrete Filled Stainless Steel Elliptical Stub Columns," Advances in Structural Engineering, 13(3), p. 493-500. doi:10.1260/1369-4332.13.3.493
Lam & Wong 2005 Metropolis & Beyond Lam, D. and Wong, K. K. Y. (2005). “Axial Capacity of Concrete Filled Stainless Steel Columns,” Metropolis & Beyond, Proceedings of the 2005 Structures Congress New York, New York, 20-24 April 2005, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, Virginia.
Tao, Uy, Liao & Han 2011 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Tao, Z., Uy, B., Liao, F.-Y., and Han, L.-H. (2011). “Nonlinear Analysis of Concrete-Filled Square Stainless Steel Stub Columns under Axial Compression.” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 67(11), 1719–1732. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2011.04.012
Uy, Tao, & Han 2011 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Uy B., Tao Z., and Han L.-H. (2011). "Behaviour of Short and Slender Concrete-Filled Stainless Steel Tubular Columns," Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 67 (3), pp. 360-378. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2010.10.004
Yang, Ma, & Wang 2012 Tubular Structures XIV Yang Y. F., Ma, G. L., and Wang, J. (2012). “Experimental Studies on Recycled Aggregate Concrete Rilled Stainless Steel Tube Stub Columns,” Tubular Structures XIV - Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Tubular Structures, ISTS 2012, 383-389.
Young & Ellobody 2006 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Young, B. and Ellobody, E. (2006). “Experimental Investigation of Concrete-Filled Cold-Formed High Strength Stainless Steel Tube Columns,” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 62, pp. 484-492. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2005.08.004
Yousuf, Uy, Remennikov & Tao 2009 Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Shock and Impact Loads on Structures Yousuf, M., Uy, B., Remennikov, A., Tao, Z. (2009). “Experimental Behaviour of Concrete-Filled Stainless Steel Tubular Columns under Impact Ioading,” Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Shock and Impact Loads on Structures, pp. 761-768.

Concrete Filled Tubular Flange Girder

Author(s) Year Publication Reference
Bondi 2011 Modern Techniques in Bridge Engineering: Proceedings of 6th New York City Bridge Conference Bondi, R. (2011). “Concrete Filled Tubular Flange Girder Bridge.” Modern Techniques in Bridge Engineering: Proceedings of 6th New York City Bridge Conference, 25-26 July 2011, pp. 137-147.

Partially Filled CFT Members

Author(s) Year Publication Reference
Fam & Mitchell 2011 Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering Fam, A. and Mitchell, J. (2011). “Enhancing Flexural Performance of Free-Standing Tubular Steel Poles Using an Optimal Partial Concrete Fill.” Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 38(10), 1145-1157. doi:10.1139/l11-075
Ge & Usami 1994 Steel-Concrete Composite Structures Ge, H. and Usami, T. (1994). “Behavior of Partially Concrete-Filled Steel Box Columns under Cyclic Lateral Loading,” Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Steel Concrete Composite Structures, Javor, J. (ed.), Kosice, Slovakia, June 20-23, 1994, Association for International Cooperation and Research in Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Expertcentrum, Bratislava, Slovakia, pp. 474-477.
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