CFT Fire Studies

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Summarized Studies

Author(s) Year Publication Reference Links
Ding & Wang 2007 Engineering Structures Ding, J., and Wang, Y.-C. (2007). “Experimental Study of Structural Fire Behaviour of Steel Beam to Concrete Filled Tubular Column Assemblies with Different Types of Joints.” Engineering Structures 29 (12), December, pp. 3495-3502 doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2007.08.018 Summary
Han & Huo 2003 Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE Han, L.-H. and Huo, J.-S. (2003). “Concrete-Filled Hollow Structural Steel Columns after Exposure to ISO-834 Fire Standard,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 129, No. 1, January, pp. 68-78. Summary
Han et al. 2013 Engineering Structures Han, L.-H., Chen, F., Liao, F.-Y., Tao, Z., and Uy, B. (2013). “Fire Performance of Concrete Filled Stainless Steel Tubular Columns.” Engineering Structures, 56, November, pp. 165-181 doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2013.05.005 Summary
Han, Huo, & Wang 2007 Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE Han, L.-H., Huo, J.-S., and Wang, Y.-C. (2007). “Behavior of Steel Beam to Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Column Connections after Exposure to Fire,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 133, No. 6, June, pp. 800-814. Summary
Han, Tan & Song 2014 Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE Han, L., Tan, Q., and Song, T. (2014). “Fire Performance of Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns.” Journal of Structural Engineering, 141(4), July. Summary
Han, Wang, & Yu 2010 Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE Han, L.-H., Wang, W.-H., and Yu, H.-X. (2010). "Experimental Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete (RC) Beam to Concrete-filled Steel Tubular (CFST) Column Frames Subjected to ISO-834 Standard Fire," Engineering Structures, 32 (10), pp. 3130-3144. doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2010.06.001 Summary
Han, Zhao, Yang & Feng 2003 Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE Han, L.-H., Zhao, X.-L., Yang, Y.-F., and Feng, J.-B. (2003). “Experimental Study and Calculation of Fire Resistance of Concrete-Filled Hollow Steel Columns,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 129, No. 3, March, pp. 346-356. Summary
Kodur & Lie 1996 Journal of Structural Engineering Kodur, V. K. R and Lie, T. T. (1996). “Fire Resistance of Circular Steel Columns Filled With Fiber-Reinforced Concrete.” Journal of Structural Engineering, 122 (7), July, pp. 776-782 Summary
Kodur & Mackinnon 2000 National Research Council Canada Kodur, V. R., Mackinnon, D. H.(2000). “Design of Concrete-filled Hollow Structural Steel Columns for Fire Endurance.” National Research Council Canada. Summary
Lu, Han, & Zhao 2010a Fire Safety Journal Lu, H., Han, L. H., and Zhao, X. L. (2010). “Fire Performance of Self-consolidating Concrete Filled Double Skin Steel Tubular Columns: Experiments.” Fire Safety Journal, 45 (2), February, pp. 106-111. doi:10.1016/j.firesaf.2009.12.001 Summary
Lu, Han, & Zhao 2010b Journal of Construction Steel Research Lu, H., Zhao, X-L., Han, L-H., (2011). “FE Modelling and Fire Resistance Design of Concrete Filled Double Skin Tubular Columns” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 67 (11), November. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2011.04.014 Summary
Lu, Zhao, & Han 2010 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Lu, H., Zhao, X.L. and Han, L.H. (2010), "Testing of Self-consolidating Concrete-filled Double Skin Tubular Stub Columns Exposed to Fire." Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 66(8-9), 1069-1080. Summary
Neuenschwander, Knobloch & Fontanta 2017 Journal of Structural Engineering Neuenschwander, M., Knobloch, M., and Fontana, M. (2017). “ISO Standard Fire Tests of Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Columns with Solid Steel Core.” Journal of Structural Engineering, 143 (4), April. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0001695 Summary
Pascual, Romero, & Tizani 2015 Engineering Structures Pascual, A., M., Romero, M., L., and Tizani, W. (2015). “Fire Performance of Blind-bolted Connections to Concrete Filled Tubular Columns in Tension.” Engineering structures 96 (1), August, pp. 111-125. doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2015.03.067 Summary
Rodrigues & Laím 2018 Journal of Structural Engineering Rodrigues, J., Laím, L.(2018). “Behavior of Concrete-Filled Circular, Square, Rectangular,

and Elliptical Hollow Columns Subjected to Fire.” Journal of Structural Engineering, 144 (6), June. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0002035

Summary
Sakumoto, Okada, Yoshida, & Tasaka 1994 Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering Sakumoto, Y., Okada, T., Yoshida, M., and Tasaka, S.(1994). “Fire Resistance of Concrete‐Filled, Fire‐Resistant Steel‐Tube Columns.” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 6 (2), May, pp. 169-184 doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0899-1561(1994)6:2(169) Summary
Song, Han, & Uy 2010 Engineering Structures Song, T.-Y., Han, L.-H., and Uy, B. (2010). “Performance of CFST Column to Steel Beam Joints Subjected to Simulated Fire Including the Cooling Phase.” Journal of Construction Steel Research 66 (4), April, pp. 591-604.doi:0.1016/j.jcsr.2009.12.006 Summary
Song, Han, & Yu 2010 Journal of Steel Construction Research Song, T.-Y., Han, L.-H., and Yu, H.-X.(2010). “Concrete Filled Steel Tube Stub Columns under Combined Temperature and Loading.” Journal of Construction Steel Research, 66 (3), March, pp. 369-384 doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2009.10.010 Summary
Xu & Liu 2013 Advances in Structural Engineering Xu, L., Liu, Y.-B..(2013). “Concrete Filled Steel Tube Reinforced Concrete (CFSTRC) Columns Subjected to ISO-834 Standard Fire: Experiment.” Advances in Structural Engineering, 16 (7), pp. 1263-1282 doi: 10.1260/1369-4332.16.7.1263 Summary

Supplementary References

Author(s) Year Publication Reference Links
Allen & Lie 1974 National Research Council of Canada (NRCC) Allen, D. E. and Lie, T. T. (1974). “Further Studies of the Fire Resistance of Reinforced Concrete Columns,” Report No. NRCC 14047, National Research Council of Canada (NRCC), Division of Building Research, Ottawa, Canada.
Chabot & Lie 1992 National Research Council of Canada, Institute for Research in Construction Chabot, M. and Lie, T. T. (1992). “Experimental Studies on the Fire Resistance of Hollow Steel Columns Filled with Bar-Reinforced Concrete,” IRC Internal Report No. 268, National Research Council of Canada, Institute for Research in Construction, Ottawa, Canada.
Chung, Park, & Cho 2008 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Chung, K., Park, S., and Choi, S. (2008). “Material Effect for Predicting the Fire Resistance of Concrete-filled Square Steel Tube Column under Constant Axial Load.” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 64(12), 1505-1515. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2008.01.002
Dai and Lam 2012 Tubular Structures XIV Dai, X. H. and Lam, D. (2012). “Shape Effect on Structural Fire Behaviour of Axially Loaded Concrete Filled Tubular (CFT) Stub Columns.” Tubular Structures XIV - Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Tubular Structures, ISTS 2012, 575-582.
Dai and Lam 2012 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Dai, X. H. and Lam, D. (2012). “Shape Effect on the Behaviour of Axially Loaded Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Stub Columns at Elevated Temperature.” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 73, 117-127. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2012.02.002
Ding & Wang 2006 Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium and IIW International Conference on Tubular Structures Ding, J., and Wang, Y. C. (2006). “The Behavior of Rotationally Restrained Concrete Filled Tubular Columns in Fire,” Tubular Structures XI, Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium and IIW International Conference on Tubular Structures, Packer, J. A. and Willibald, S. (eds.), Québec City, Canada, 31 August-2 September 2006, Taylor & Francis, Leiden, The Netherlands, pp. 417-424.
Ding & Wang 2007 Engineering Structures Ding, J., and Wang, Y. C. (2007). “Experimental Study of Structural Fire Behaviour of Steel Beam to Concrete Filled Tubular Column Assemblies with Different Types of Joints.” Engineering Structures, Vol. 29, No. 12, pp. 3485-3502.
Ding & Wang 2007 Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Steel and Composite Structures (ICSCS07) Ding, J., and Wang, Y. C. (2007). “Realistic Modelling of Concrete Filled Tubular (CFT) Columns in Fire.” Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Steel and Composite Structures (ICSCS07), Taylor & Francis, Manchester, UK.
Ding & Wang 2008 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Ding, J., and Wang, Y. C. (2008). “Realistic Modelling of Thermal and Structural Behaviour of Unprotected Concrete Filled Tubular Columns in Fire.” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 64(10), 1086-1102. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2007.09.014
Ding & Wang 2009 Fire Safety Journal Ding, J., and Wang, Y. C. (2009). “Temperatures in Unprotected Joints between Steel Beams and Concrete-filled Tubular Columns in Fire.” Fire Safety Journal, 44(1), 16-32. doi:10.1016/j.firesaf.2008.02.004
Ding 2008 The Structural Engineer Ding, S. (2008). “Design for Robustness of Connections to Concrete Filled Tubular Columns in Fire.” The Structural Engineer, 86(19), 22-26.
Edwards 1994 Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Tubular Structures Edwards, M. (1994). “A Re-Evaluation of the Fire Protection of Unprotected Concrete Filled SHS Columns,” Tubular Structures VI, Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Tubular Structures, Grundy, P., Holgate, A., and Wong, W. (eds.), Melbourne, Australia, 14-16 December 1994, A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 299-306.
Edwards 1998 Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Tubular Structures Edwards, M. (1998). “The Performance in Fire of Concrete Filled SHS Columns Protected by Intumescent Paint,” Tubular Structures VIII, Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Tubular Structures, Choo, Y. S., and Van der Vegte, G. J. (eds.), Singapore, 26-28 August 1998, A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 491-498.
Edwards 2001 Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium and Euroconference on Tubular Structures Edwards, M. (2001). “The Performance in Fire of Fully Utilised Concrete Filled SHS Columns with External Fire Protection,” Tubular Structures IX, Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium and Euroconference on Tubular Structures, Puthli, R. and Herion, S. (eds.), Düsseldorf, Germany, 3-5 April 2001, Swets & Zeitlinger, Lisse, The Netherlands, pp. 461-465.
Elsawaf, Wang, & Mandal 2011 Engineering Structures Elsawaf, S., Wang, Y.C., and Mandal, P. (2011). "Numerical Modelling of Restrained Structural Subassemblies of Steel Beam and CFT Columns Connected Using Reverse Channels in Fire." Engineering Structures, 33 (4), pp. 1217-1231 doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2010.12.043
Elsawaf & Wang 2012 Engineering Structures Elsawaf, S. and Wang, Y.C. (2012). "Methods of Improving the Survival Temperature in Fire of Steel Beam Connected to CFT Column Using Reverse Channel Connection." Engineering Structures, 34, pp. 132-146 doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2011.09.004
Elsawaf, Wang, & Mandal 2012 Tubular Structures XIV Elsawaf, S., Wang, Y.C., and Mandal, P. (2012). "Behaviour of Steel Beams Connected to CFT Column in Fire During Cooling Stage." Tubular Structures XIV - Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Tubular Structures, ISTS 2012, 631-638.
Elsawaf & Wang 2013 Engineering Structures Elsawaf, S. and Wang, Y.C. (2013). "Behaviour of Restrained Structural Subassemblies of Steel Beam to CFT Column in Fire During Cooling Stage." Engineering Structures, 46, 471–492. doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2012.08.023
Espinos, Romero, & Hospitaler 2010 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Espinos, A., Romero, M.L., and Hospitaler, A. (2010). "Advanced Model for Predicting the Fire Response of Concrete Filled Tubular Columns," Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 66 (8-9), pp. 1030-1046. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2010.03.002
Espinos et al. 2011 Engineering Structures Espinos, A., Gardner, L., Romero M.L., and Hospitaler, A. (2011). "Fire Behaviour of Concrete Filled Elliptical Steel Columns," Thin-Walled Structures, 49 (2), pp. 239-255. doi:10.1016/j.tws.2010.10.008
Espinos et al. 2011 Journal of Structural Fire Engineering Espinos, A., Ibáñez, C., Romero, M.L., and Hospitaler, A. (2011). "Comparison of a Three-Dimensional Numerical Model for Fire Resistance of Axially Loaded Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Columns with Eurocode 4," Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, 2(2), 67-79. doi:10.1260/2040-2317.2.2.67
Espinos, Romero, & Hospitaler 2012 Engineering Structures Espinos, A., Romero, M. L., and Hospitaler, A. (2012). “Simple Calculation Model for Evaluating the Fire Resistance of Unreinforced Concrete Filled Tubular Columns.” Engineering Structures, 42, 231–244. doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2012.04.022
Espinos et al. 2012 Tubular Structures XIV Espinos, A., Romero, M. L., Hospitaler, A., Ibañez, C., Pascual, A., and Moliner, V. (2012). “An Experimental Study of the Fire Behaviour of Slender Concrete Filled Circular Hollow Section Columns.” Tubular Structures XIV - Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Tubular Structures, ISTS 2012, 583-590.
Espinos, Hospitaler, & Romero 2009 Acta Polytechnica Espinos, A., Hospitaler, A., andRomero, M. L. (2009). “Fire Resistance of Axially Loaded Slender Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Columns: Development of a Three-dimensional Numerical Model and Comparison with Eurocode 4.” Acta Polytechnica, Czech Technical University in Prague, 49(1), pp. 39-43.
Fang, Igaki, & Nakamura 1995 Proceedings of the Fourth Pacific Structural Steel Conference Fang, T., Igaki, R., and Nakamura, T.(1995). “Elastic-Plastic Behaviour of Concrete Filled Tubular Steel Columns,” Structural Steel, PSSC '95, Proceedings of the Fourth Pacific Structural Steel Conference, Shanmugam, N. E. and Choo, Y. S. (eds.), Singapore, October 25-27, 1995, Pergamon, Elsevier Science, Vol. 3, pp. 45-52.
Fike & Kodur 2012 Proceedings of the Structural Stability Research Council Annual Stability Conference 2012 Fike, R. S. and Kodur, V. K. R. (2012). "Enhancing the Tire Performance of Concrete-filled Steel Columns through System-level Analysis," Proceedings of the Structural Stability Research Council Annual Stability Conference 2012, Dallas, Texas, 424-441.
Han 1997 Composite Construction -- Conventional and Innovative, Proceedings of the International Conference Han, L.-H. (1997). “New Developments in Fire Resistance of Concrete Filled Steel Tubes in China,” Composite Construction -- Conventional and Innovative, Proceedings of the International Conference, Innsbruck, Austria, September 16-18, 1997, International Association of Bridge and Structural Engineers, Lausanne, Switzerland, pp. 391-396.
Han 2001 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Han, L.-H. (2001). “Fire Performance of Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Beam-Columns,” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 57, No. 6, June, pp. 695-709.
Han & Lin 2004 Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE Han, L.-H. and Lin, X.-K. (2004). “Tests on Cyclic Behavior of Concrete-Filled Hollow Structural Steel Columns after Exposure to the ISO-834 Standard Fire,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 130, No. 11, November, pp. 1807-1819.
Han, Lin, & Yang 2008 Advances in Structural Engineering Han, L. H., Lin, X. K., and Yang, Y. F. (2008). “Cyclic Performance of Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Columns After Exposure to Fire: Analysis and Simplified Model.” Advances in Structural Engineering, 11(4), 455-473. doi:10.1260/136943308785836853
Han, Wang, & Yu 2012 Engineering Structures Han, L.-H., Wang, W.-H., and Yu, H.-X. (2012). “Analytical Behaviour of RC Beam to CFST Column Frames Subjected to Fire.” Engineering Structures, 36, 394–410. doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2011.12.030
Han, Yang, & Cheng 2002 Advances in Structural Engineering Han, L.-H., Yang, H., and Cheng, S.-L. (2002). “Residual Strength of Concrete Filled RHS Stub Columns after Exposure to High Temperatures,” Advances in Structural Engineering, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 123-134.
Hass 1991 Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium Hass, R. (1991). “Recent Developments in the Fire Engineering Design of Concrete Filled Hollow Section Columns,” Tubular Structures, Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium, Wardenier, J., and Panjeh Shahi, E. (eds.), Delft, The Netherlands, 26-28 June 1991, Delft University Press, Delft, The Netherlands, pp. 294-303.
Hass et al. 2001 Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium and Euroconference on Tubular Structures Hass, R., Ameler, J., Zies, H., and Lorenz, H. (2001). “Fire Resistance of Hollow Section Composite Columns with High Strength Concrete Filling,” Tubular Structures IX, Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium and Euroconference on Tubular Structures, Puthli, R. and Herion, S. (eds.), Düsseldorf, Germany, 3-5 April 2001, Swets & Zeitlinger, Lisse, The Netherlands, pp. 467-474.
Hong et al. 2010 Journal of ASTM International Hong, S., Varma, A. H., Parker, A., and Dean, S. W. (2010). “Predicting Fire Behavior of Composite CFT Columns Using Fundamental Section Behavior.” Journal of ASTM International , 65(1), 54-69. doi:10.1520/JAI102311
Hong & Varma 2009 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Hong, S., and Varma, A. H. (2009). “Analytical Modeling of the Standard Fire Behavior of Loaded CFT Columns.” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 7(1), 54-69. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2008.04.008
Huang & Burgess 2012 Engineering Structures Huang, S.-S. and Burgess, I. W. (2012). “Effect of Transient Strain on Strength of Concrete and CFT Columns in Fire – Part 1: Elevated-temperature analysis on a Shanley-like column model.” Engineering Structures, 44, 379–388. doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2012.05.032
Huang & Burgess 2012 Engineering Structures Huang, S.-S. and Burgess, I. W. (2012). “Effect of Transient Strain on Strength of Concrete and CFT Columns in Fire – Part 2: Simplified and numerical modelling.” Engineering Structures, 44, 389–399. doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2012.05.052
Huang et al. 2007 Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Steel and Composite Structures (ICSCS07) Huang, S., Burgess, I. W., Huang, Z., and Plank, R. J. (2007). “Implications of Transient Thermal Strain for the Buckling of Slender Concrete-filled Columns in Fire.” Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Steel and Composite Structures (ICSCS07), Taylor & Francis, Manchester, UK.
Huo, Huang, & Xiao 2009 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Huo J., Huang G., and Xiao Y. (2009). "Effects of Sustained Axial Load and Cooling Phase on Post-fire Behaviour of Concrete-filled Steel Tubular Stub Columns," Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 65 (8-9), pp. 1664-1676. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2009.04.022
Huo et al. 2009 Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Shock and Impact Loads on Structures Huo, J.-S., Xiao, L.-P., Chen, B.-S., Xiao, Y. (2009). “Tests on Impact Behaviour of Concrete-filled Steel Tube after Exposure to High Temperatures.” Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Shock and Impact Loads on Structures, pp. 321-328.
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Huo, Han, & Wang 2010 Advances in Structural Engineering Huo, J.-S., Han, L.-H., and Wang, Y.-C. (2010). “Behaviour of Repaired Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Column to Steel Beam Joints after Exposure to Fire,” Advances in Structural Engineering, v 13, n 1, pp. 53-67.
Huo, Zeng, & Xiao 2011 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Huo, J., Zeng, X., and Xiao, Y. (2011). "Cyclic Behaviours of Concrete-filled Steel Tubular Columns with Pre-load after Exposure to Fire." Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 67 (4), pp. 727-739. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2010.11.005
Jiang, Wu, & Niu 2010 Advances in Structural Engineering Jiang, S.-F, Wu, Z.-Q., and Niu, D.-S. (2010). “Experimental Study on Fire-Exposed Rectangular Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular (CFST) Columns Subjected to Bi-Axial Force and Bending ,” Advances in Structural Engineering, v 13, n 4, pp. 551-560. doi:10.1260/1369-4332.13.4.551
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Jones & Wang 2008 Steel & Composite Structures Jones, M. H., and Wang, Y. C. (2008). “Experimental Studies and Numerical Snalysis of the Shear Behavior of Fin Plates to Tubular Columns at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures.” Steel & Composite Structures, 8(3), 179-200.
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Kodur & Lie 1995 National Research Council of Canada Kodur, V. K. R. and Lie, T. T. (1995). “Experimental Studies on the Fire Resistance of Circular Hollow Steel Columns Filled with Steel-Fibre-Reinforced Concrete,” IRC Internal Report No. 691, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
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Lie & Irwin 1996 Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE Lie, T. T. and Irwin, R. J. (1996). “Fire Resistance of Steel Columns Filled with Bar-Reinforced Concrete,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 122, No. 1, January, pp. 30-36.
Lie & Irwin 1996 Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE Lie, T. T. and Irwin, R. J. (1996). “Fire Resistance of Circular Steel Columns Filled with Bar-Reinforced Concrete,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 122, No. 7, January, pp. 776-782.
Lie, Zhi, & Zhu 1996 International Association of Bridge and Structural Engineers Lin, P.-Z., Zhu, Z.-C., and Li, Z.-J. (1997). “Fire-Resistant Structure: The Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Column,” Composite Construction -- Conventional and Innovative, Proceedings of the International Conference, Innsbruck, Austria, September 16-18, 1997, International Association of Bridge and Structural Engineers, Lausanne, Switzerland, pp. 397-401.
Lu, Zhao, & Han 2006 Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium and IIW International Conference on Tubular Structures Lu, H., Zhao, X.-L., and Han, L. H. (2006). “Fire Resistance of SCC Filled Square Hollow Structural Steel Sections,” Tubular Structures XI, Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium and IIW International Conference on Tubular Structures, Packer, J. A. and Willibald, S. (eds.), Québec City, Canada, 31 August-2 September 2006, Taylor & Francis, Leiden, The Netherlands, pp. 403-409.
Lu, Zhao, & Han 2008 Proceedings of the 4th International Structural Engineering and Construction Conference Lu, H., Zhao, X. L., and Han, L. H. (2008). “Finite Element Analysis of Temperatures in Concrete Filled Double Skin Steel Tubes Exposed to Fires.” Proceedings of the 4th International Structural Engineering and Construction Conference, Melbourne, Australia, 1151-1156.
Lu, Zhao, & Han 2009 Journal of Constructional Steel Research Lu, H., Zhao, X.-L., and Han, L.-H. (2009). "Fire Behaviour of High Strength Self-consolidating Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Stub Columns," Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 65 (10-11), pp. 1995-2010. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2009.06.013
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