Table of Experimental Studies on CFT Connection Tests

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General Information

Reference Experiment Synopsis Number of Tests Loading Method Results Reported Main Parameters Comments
Dunberry, LeBlanc, and Redwood 1987 Axial loading of square stub columns through shear connections 18 CFTs Axial load applied at the top and at the connection simultaneously
  • P vs. εs, εconcr
  • L vs. ds (slip)
  • L vs. Pc, Ps
  • θc vs. P
  • Connection detail
  • Connection load/total axial load
  • D/t
  • End conditions (capped, uncapped)
Kamba, Kanatani, and Tabuchi 1991 Shear tests of through diaphragm connections to square CFT and HT columns
  • 5 CFTs
  • 5 HTs
Shear couples acting on the diaphragm plates
  • σ-ε relations for steel
  • Vu, Vy, Ko
  • Vcu, Vcy, Kco
  • V vs. γ
  • τc vs. γ
  • D/t (column and panel zone)
  • CFT vs. HT
  • Annealing of steel tube
Prion and McLellan 1992 Through-bolt connections between steel wide-flange girders and CFTs 8 CFTs Tension pull-out and compression pull-in tests
  • Concrete and steel stress-strain relationships
  • Bolt slip-load and load-strain relationshops
Post-tensioning of the bolts in the connection
Azizinamini and Prakash 1992 Pass-through girder with internal stiffeners 1 CFT Shear forces were applied to the girder ends in opposite directions N.A. N.A.
Shakir-Khalil and Al-Rawdan 1995, 1996 Full-scale simple interior beam-to-column connections of circular and square CFTs 28 CFTs
  • Symm. loading of the beams and axial loading of the column, simult.
  • Beam-to-column load ratios were 1:8 or 1:5
  • M vs. θc
  • Ko, Pu
  • P vs. εs
  • Fin-plate vs. tee cleat
  • D
  • t
  • Shear connector
  • Beam load to column load ratio
  • Eccentricity of beam load
Shakir-Khalil and Al-Rawdan 1995, 1996 Monotonic tests for full-scale simple exterior beam-to-column connections of square CFTs 4 CFTs
  • Eccentric loading of the beam and axial loading of the column, simult.
  • Beam-to-column load ratios were 1:8 or 1:5
  • M vs. θc
  • Ko, Pu
  • Longitudinal strain distribution along the column length
  • Beam load to column ratio
  • Eccentricity of beam load
Shakir-Khalil and Al-Rawdan 1995, 1996 Monotonic test for full-scale simple interior beam-to-column connections of square CFTs 4 CFTs
  • Symm. loading of the beams and axial loading of the column, simult.
  • Beam-to-column ratios were 1:3, 1:5 or 1:8
  • M vs. θc
  • Ko, Pu
  • P vs. in-plane displacement along the column length
  • Beam load-to-column load ratio
  • Eccentricity of beam load
Kawano and Matsui 1997

Kawano and Matsui 1997 II

Simple tension tests on CFT and HT connections and cyclic tests on cruciform frames including both CFTs and HTs
  • 6 CFTs, 9 HTs (simple tension)
  • 9 CFTs, 11 HTs (cruciform frame)
  • Tensile loading until fracture through flanges (smpl. tension test)
  • Constant axial load on the columns and cyclic shear force at the girder ends (cruciform frames)
  • Pu, Pa, Pu/Pa
  • Vu/Vc
  • V vs. R
  • CFT vs. HT
  • Connection type
  • Size of diaphragm and vertical stiffener
Schneider and Alostaz 1998 Cyclic testing of 2/3 scale beam-to-column connections of circular CFTs 6 CFTs Constant axial load on to the column and cyclic shear load at the girder end M vs. θ, Mc Connection details
France, Davison, and Kirby 1999 Cyclic and monotonic loading of beam-to-column flow-drill connections of square CFTs and HTs
  • 20 HTs
  • 6 CFTs
Monotonic or cyclic shear force applied at the girder tips with either constant or no axial load acting on the columns M vs. θ, Mu, θu
  • CFT vs. HT
  • Connection type (simple or fully restrained)
  • Beam size
  • t
  • P
  • Bolt spacing
  • Endplate type
  • fy
Cheng, Hwang, and Chung 2000 Cyclic loading of beam-to-column connections of circular CFTs
  • 3 CFTs
  • 3 HTs
Constant axial load on the columns and cyclic shear load at the girder ends
  • V vs. girder-end deflection
  • Contribution of girder, column, and panel zone to the total deformation
  • CFT vs. HT
  • D/t
  • Connection type

Specimen Information

Reference Beam Information Connection Information (Plate and Stiffener) End Conditions
Dunberry, LeBlanc, and Redwood 1987 N.A N.A.
Kamba, Kanatani, and Tabuchi 1991 N.A Pinned-pinned (column)
Prion and McLellan 1992 N.A N.A.
Azizinamini and Prakash 1992 W30 x 99 N.A.
Shakir-Khalil and Al-Rawdan 1995, 1996 406 x 178 x 67 UB Pinned-pinned (column)
Shakir-Khalil and Al-Rawdan 1995, 1996 406 x 178 x 67 UB Pinned-pinned (column)
Shakir-Khalil and Al-Rawdan 1995, 1996 406 x 178 x 67 UB Pinned-pinned (column)
Kawano and Matsui 1997

Kawano and Matsui 1997 II

  • 0.177 in. flange (smpl. tension)
  • Fy=44.9 (smpl. tension)
  • H200x100x3.2x4.5, H250x1000x6.0x6.0 (cruciform frame)
  • Fy=43.11-55.35 (cruciform frame)
Pinned-pinned (columns in cruciform frames)
Schneider and Alostaz 1998
  • W14 x 38
  • Girder Fy=44.3 (flange), 52.0 (web)
  • Connection Stub Fy=48.2 (flange), 39.4 (web)
Roller at the top and pinned at the bottom (column)
France, Davison, and Kirby 1999
  • 457 x 152 x 52 UB
  • 356 x 171 x 45 UB
  • 254 x 146 x 31 UB
  • Grade 43
Pinned-pinned with fully-restraint or simple beam-to-column connections at the middle
Cheng, Hwang, and Chung 2000
  • H-600 x 200 x 11 x 17
  • Fy=44.67 (flange), 47.57 (web)
Pinned-pinned (column)

Cross Section Information

Reference Tube Dimensions Steel Properties Concrete Properties
Dunberry, LeBlanc, and Redwood 1987 Class H Grade 50W

Fy = 51.3-64.3 ksi

f'c = 2.25-4.29 ksi
Kamba, Kanatani, and Tabuchi 1991 STK400

Fy = 48.4, 52.6 ksi (annealed) 54.07-56.92 ksi (cold-formed)

f'c = 3.37, 3.56 ksi
Prion and McLellan 1992 Fy = 50.8 ksi f'c = 6.53 ksi
Azizinamini and Prakash 1992 Fy = 36.1 ksi f'c = 14.07 ksi
Shakir-Khalil and Al-Rawdan 1995, 1996 Fy = 44.0-60.2 ksi f'c = 4.25-5.90 ksi
Shakir-Khalil and Al-Rawdan 1995, 1996 Fy = 47.9, 48.2 f'c = 4.54-4.90 ksi
Shakir-Khalil and Al-Rawdan 1995, 1996 Fy = 49.3, 49.8 ksi f'c = 4.29-4.84 ksi
Kawano and Matsui 1997

Kawano and Matsui 1997 II

Cold formed STKR400

Fy = 62.8 ksi

f'c = 4.97, 5.19 ksi
Schneider and Alostaz 1998 Fy = 57.5 ksi f'c = 7.8-8.2 ksi
France, Davison, and Kirby 1999 Hot-rolled Grade 43

Fy = 44.5-61.9 ksi

f'c = 6.29-7.32 ksi
Cheng, Hwang, and Chung 2000 Cold-formed

Fy = 45.5, 56.9 ksi

f'c = 3.77, 3.92 ksi