Table of Experimental Studies on Beam, Beam Column, and Shear Tests
From Composite Systems
General Information
Reference  Experiment Synopsis  Number of Tests  Loading Method  Results Reported  Main Parameters  Comments 

Furlong 1967  Ultimate strength of CFT bmcols. (experimental vs. theoretical)  52 CFTs (13 col, 39 bmcol) 




Furlong 1968  Design of CFT bmcols; previous exps. examined  28 CFTs (col) (tests by others tabulated); also includes 52 CFTs from Furlong, '67  N.A. 


Analytical formulas presented and discussed 
Tomii and Sakino 1979 a & b  Examination of MPφ relationship for square CFTs 





Tomii and Sakino 1979 c  Shear behavior of square CFTs  40 CFTs (bmcol) 




Sakino and Tomii 1981  Hysteretic behavior of beamcolumns failing in flexure  15 CFTs (bmcol) 




Sakino and Ishibashi 1985  Monotonic and hysteretic behavior of beamcolumns failing in shear  21 CFTs (bmcol) (12 monotonic, 9 cyclic) 




Matsui and Tsuda 1987  Axial load & bending (cyclic & monotonic) 




Excellent loaddefl. curves 
Cai 1988  7 test phases:






Prion and Boehme 1989 






Konno, Kai, and Nagashima 1990  Cyclic loading of square CFT bmcols  19 CFTs (bmcol) 



Compared w/ proposed design equations. 
Huang, Huang, and Zhong 1991  Cyclic, lateral loading of CFTs  46 CFTs (bmcol)  Lateral load applied via a frame fixed to top of beam 


Monotonic and cyclic loading 
Ichinohe et al. 1991  Monotonic & cyclic loading of CFTs w/ highstrength steel & concrete 





Sato, Saito, and Suzuki 1991  Reversed cyclic shear loading of circular CFTs  3 CFTs 




Sugano, Nagashima, and Kei 1992  Cyclic loading of square and circular beamcolumns 





Kawaguchi et al. 1993  Cyclic loading of cantilever CFT beamcolumns 

N.A. 



Lu and Kennedy 1994  Monotonic uniaxial loading (pure bending, simple supports) of rectangular CFTs 





Sakino 1995  Monotonic loading of circular CFT beamcolumns  28 CFTs (bmcol) 


P/P_{o} for given cyclic loading  
Fujimoto et al. 1996 & Inai et al. 2004  Cyclic loaddeformation and ultimate strength of CFT beamcolumns with variable axial load 





Tsuda, Matsui, and Mino 1996  Series II  Slender Cantilever CFT’s subjected to cyclic horizontal load while under constant axial load 





ElRemaily et al. 1997  Cyclic loading of circular CFTs w/ high strength concrete  4 CFTs (cyclic) 




Zhang and Shahrooz 1997  Monotonic loading of square CFT beamcolumns at a horizontal position  2 CFTs (bmcol)  Constant axial load, monotically increasing point loads applied at two points along the specimen length 

Axial load ratio P/Po  
Nakahara and Sakino 1998  Monotonic loading of square hollow tubes and square CFTs w/ high strength concrete and steel 





Nakahara and Sakino 2000a  Monotonic and cyclic loading of square CFT bmcols 





Varma et al. 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004  Monotonic and cyclic loading of square CFTs w/ highstrength steel & concrete 





Elchalakani, Zhao, and Grzebieta 2001  Uniaxial flexural loading (pure bending) of circular CFT beams  12 CFTs 




Elremaily and Azizinamini 2002  Nonproportional cyclic loading of circular CFT beamcolumns  6 




Hsu and Yu 2003  Nonproportional cyclic loading of square CFT beamcolumns with tierods  18 




Elchalakani, Zhao, and Grzebieta 2004  Constant amplitude cyclic flexural loading (pure bending) of circular CFT beams  23 




Fujimoto et al. 2004  Monotonic loading of short circular and square CFT beam columns  65  Three types:




Hardika and Gardner 2004  Nonproportional cyclic loading of square CFT beamcolumns  24 




Wheeler and Bridge 2004  Monotonic four point bending of circular CFT beams 



D/t f′_{c} 

Han and Yang 2005  Nonproportional cyclic loading of circular CFT beam columns 


H vs. Δ 


Elchalakani and Zhao 2008  Variable amplitude cyclic flexural loading (pure bending) of circular CFT beams  10 CFTs 




Gajalakshmi and Helena 2012 




Specimen Information
Reference  Length (L)(in)  L/D  Eccentricity(in)  Residual Stresses(ksi)  End Conditions 

Furlong 1967  Approx. 36.0  5.512.0  Constant for all tests  N.A. 

Furlong 1968  33.9102  8.740.0  N.A.  Extensive stresses noted in plain tube tests  N.A. 
Tomii and Sakino 1979 a & b  11.8  3.0  N.A.  Tubes annealed 

Tomii and Sakino 1979 c  6.523.6  1.666.0 (a/D = 0.833.0)  N.A.  Tubes annealed 

Sakino and Tomii 1981  15.723.6  4.06.0 (a/D = 2.03.0)  N.A.  Tubes annealed 

Sakino and Ishibashi 1985  7.911.8  2.03.0 (a/D = 1.01.5)  N.A.  Tubes annealed 

Matsui and Tsuda 1987  29.5  5.0  N.A.  N.A.  Vertical cantilever:
fixed base, free end 
Cai 1988  see L/D 
1) <= 4.0 2) 350 3) ? 4) 422 5) 513 6) 919 7) 48 
e / (concrete radius) = 01.28  N.A. 

Prion and Boehme 1989 


3 bmcol tests:
0.430.59 
N.A. 

Konno, Kai, and Nagashima 1990  66.9  6.8  N.A.  N.A.  Pinnedpinned 
Huang, Huang, and Zhong 1991  35.465.4  5.4517.5 (λ = 2275)  N.A.  N.A. 

Ichinohe et al. 1991  35.4, 90.6 

N.A.  Annealed specimens noted  Both pinnedpinned 
Sato, Saito, and Suzuki 1991  43.3  7.33  N.A.  Annealed 

Sugano, Nagashima, and Kei 1992 


N.A.  N.A.  Pinned transverse supports 
Kawaguchi et al. 1993  39.3 (1 m)  10  N.A.  N.A.  Fixed base, pinned top (roller) 
Lu and Kennedy 1994  77.75167.72  8.7820  Pure bending  N.A.  Simply supported beam with load applied symmetrically at two points. Stiffeners under loads 
Sakino 1995  12.7553.15  3  N.A.  N.A.  Two loading plates welded to the ends 
Fujimoto et al. 1996 & Inai et al. 2004  37.856.7  6  N.A.  N.A.  Fixed CFT columns attached to CFT stubs at ends to guarantee sufficient stiffness 
Tsuda, Matsui, and Mino 1996  All noted are kL;


N.A.  N.A.  Col: Fixed base, unspecified connection at top (poss. free or pin) 
ElRemaily et al. 1997  110.83  7.16  N.A.  N.A.  Pinned ends, rigid stub at the midheight 
Zhang and Shahrooz 1997  143.98  14.4  N.A.  N.A.  Pinned ends through cylindrical bearings 
Nakahara and Sakino 1998  23.62  3  N.A.  N.A. 

Nakahara and Sakino 2000a  23.62  3  N.A.  Annealed  Two loading plates welded to the ends 
Varma et al. 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004  48.03, 58.50, 60.00  4.00, 5.00, 4.87  N.A.  N.A. 

Elchalakani, Zhao, and Grzebieta 2001  23.62, 31.49  5.4123.68  N.A.  N.A.  Attached to rotational fixtures at each end 
Elremaily and Azizinamini 2002  86  6.7  N.A.  N.A. 

Hsu and Yu 2003  118 (72.4 effective length)  10.7  N.A.  N.A. 

Elchalakani, Zhao, and Grzebieta 2004  31.5 (length of pure bending)  7.313.1  Pure bending  N.A.  Attached to rotational fixtures at each end 
Fujimoto et al. 2004  12.7553.1  3.0 

N.A.  Either pinnedpinned or fixedfree 
Hardika and Gardner 2004  75  9.4  0.5 in between horizontal load and section centroid  N.A.  Fixedfree 
Wheeler and Bridge 2004  149.6  9.4, 8.3  N.A.  N.A.  Pinnedpinned 
Han and Yang 2005  59 

N.A.  N.A.  Pinnedpinned, cylindrical bearings 
Elchalakani and Zhao 2008  31.5  7.313.1  Pure bending  N.A.  Attached to rotational fixtures at each end 
Gajalakshmi and Helena 2012  39.37  8.77  N.A.  N.A.  Column fixed at base 
Cross Section Information
Reference  Tube Dimensions  Steel Properties  Concrete Properties 

Furlong 1967 

Seamweld coldrolled
F_{y}= 42.060.0 ksi (circular) 48.070.3 ksi (rect.) 
f'_{c}= 3.055.10 ksi (circular) 3.406.50 ksi (rect.) 
Furlong 1968 

Seamwelded coldrolled
F_{y}= 39.676.0 ksi 
f'_{c}= 25 ksi 
Tomii and Sakino 1979 a & b 

Mild coldworked, welded, annealed
F_{y}= 28.750.2 ksi 
f'_{c}= 2.75.5 ksi 
Tomii and Sakino 1979 c 

Mild, coldworked, welded, annealed
F_{y}= 28.244.9 ksi 
f'_{c}= 3.36.6 ksi 
Sakino and Tomii 1981 

Mild, coldworked, welded, annealed
F_{y}= 42.144.9 ksi 
f'_{c}= 2.93.7 ksi 
Sakino and Ishibashi 1985 

Mild, coldworked, welded, annealed
F_{y}= 41.845.8 ksi 
f'_{c}= 2.43.7 ksi 
Matsui and Tsuda 1987 

Mildsteel plates
F_{y}= 51.471.5 ksi 
f'_{c}= 4.66.0 ksi 
Cai 1988 

N.A.  N.A. 
Prion and Boehme 1989 

Electrically welded long. seam
F_{y}= 3648 ksi 
f'_{c}= 10.613.3 ksi 
Konno, Kai, and Nagashima 1990 

F_{y}= 45.969.3  f'_{c}= 4.38 12.31 ksi 
Huang, Huang, and Zhong 1991 

F_{y}= 34.244.1 ksi  f'_{c}= 3.965.32 ksi 
Ichinohe et al. 1991 

Some specimens annealed
F_{y}= 50.885.3 ksi 
f'_{c}= 9.09.6 ksi 
Sato, Saito, and Suzuki 1991 

Annealed
F_{y}= 55.8 ksi 
f'_{c}= 5.15 ksi 
Sugano, Nagashima, and Kei 1992 

F_{y}= 47.972.1 ksi  f'_{c}= 4.512.8 ksi 
Kawaguchi et al. 1993 

Coldformed
F_{y}= 49.2 ksi 
f'_{c}= 3.13.6 ksi 
Lu and Kennedy 1994 

Coldformed
F_{y}= 50 ksi 
f'_{c}= 5.876.83 ksi 
Sakino 1995 

F_{y}= 59.2, 93.7, 127.5 ksi  f'_{c}= 
Fujimoto et al. 1996 & Inai et al. 2004 

Coldformed
F_{y}= 58.0, 85.6, 113.1 ksi 
f'_{c}= 5.80, 13.05 ksi 
Tsuda, Matsui, and Mino 1996 

Mild steel;
F_{y}= STK 400: 51.5 ksi, STKR 400: 57.5 ksi 
f'_{c}= 5.04 ksi 
ElRemaily et al. 1997 

F_{y}= 54  f'_{c}= 10, 15 ksi 
Zhang and Shahrooz 1997 

Cold formed
F_{y}= 53.7 ksi 
f'_{c}= 6.05 ksi 
Nakahara and Sakino 1998 

Coldformed channel sections
F_{y}= 45.0, 113.3 ksi 
f'_{c}= 17.26 ksi 
Nakahara and Sakino 2000a 

F_{y}= 30.6, 36.7, 46.4 ksi  f'_{c}= 6.90 ksi 
Varma et al. 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004 

A500
A500 F_{y}= Grade B: 37.6, 68.3 ksi, Grade 80: 81.2, 95.7 ksi 
f'_{c}= 4.33 ksi 
Elchalakani, Zhao, and Grzebieta 2001 

Coldformed
F_{y}= 52.966.7 ksi 
f'_{c}= 3.39 ksi 
Elremaily and Azizinamini 2002 

F_{y}= 54 ksi 
f'_{c}= 5.815.1 ksi 
Hsu and Yu 2003 

Cold bent JIS SS400 plates
F_{y}= 46.5 ksi 
f'_{c}= 4.93 ksi 
Elchalakani, Zhao, and Grzebieta 2004 

Cold formed, electric resistance welded
F_{y}= 60.6 ksi 
f'_{c}= 3.35 ksi 
Fujimoto et al. 2004 

Cold formed plate
Circular: cold form and seam weld Square: welding two channels F_{y}= 38121 ksi 
f'_{c}= 3.712.3 ksi 
Hardika and Gardner 2004 

ASTM A 500 Grade C
F_{y}= 5659 ksi 
f'_{c}= 5.814.9 ksi 
Wheeler and Bridge 2004 

Cold rolled with continuous seamless welds
F_{y}= 50.9 ksi 
f'_{c}= 5.88.1 ksi 
Han and Yang 2005 

F_{y}= 51.6, 44.7 ksi  f'_{c}= 3.2, 5.6 ksi 
Elchalakani and Zhao 2008 

Cold formed (in some cases machined to achieve D/t)
F_{y}= 61.4 ksi 
f'_{c}= 3.35 ksi 
Gajalakshmi and Helena 2012 

F_{y}= 42.5 ksi 
f'_{c}= 4.70 (CFT), 8.38 (SCFT) ksi 