Selected Research Projects

Hospital Community Benefits: Center faculty members are using financial reports that tax-exempt hospitals are required to file with the Internal Revenue Service (I.R.S.) to examine patterns in the delivery of community benefits such as charity care and community-based health promotion activities.  Using these data, Center faculty members conducted the first national assessment of community benefits provided by tax-exempt hospitals, which was published in the New England Journal of Medicine.  In collaboration with a research team based at George Washington University, Center faculty members received funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to develop a web-based tool and related set of measures for examining patterns in tax-exempt hospitals’ provision of community benefits.

Pay-for-Performance and Quality of Care: Center faculty members have conducted studies regarding the design and implementation of pay-for-performance programs for improving quality of care.  In support of this research, Center faculty members have received funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

Hospital Supply Chain: Center faculty members are conducting studies to identify best practices for managing hospital supply chains and the factors associated with supply chain management as a core competency for hospitals.  Center faculty members have received funding from the Department of Veterans Affairs to study best practices and improvement opportunities for inventory management.

Opioid Addiction: Center faculty members are investigating different approaches for treating and reducing the risk of opioid addiction.  One study, supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is focusing on physician prescribing practices for opioids including Suboxone, a medication used for treating opioid use disorder. Another study is supported by the Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab at MIT and is evaluating the use of educational messaging and financial incentives for reducing the use and misuse of prescription opioid medication. Center faculty members were also awarded a grant from the National Science Foundation for developing techniques for causal inference in large-scale studies with applications for improving treatment quality of opioid use Disorder (OUD). Using large-scale U.S. healthcare data, the project will develop tractable computational approaches to facilitate better policy decision-making.

Hospital-Physician Integration: Center faculty members have been conducting research addressing the performance implications for hospitals from employing physicians directly or through practice acquisitions.  In a recently completed study, published in Health Affairs, Center faculty reported that hospital employment of primary care physicians was associated with higher rates of inappropriate diagnostic imaging.  


Medicare Quality Ratings: Center faculty members have examined the quality ratings that the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services use for prescription drug plans participating in the Medicare Part D program. One such study published in Health Affairs investigated the influence of the socio-economic characteristics of a plan’s enrollees on its quality ratings for medication adherence.

Low Value Care: Center faculty are investigating health care services that offer relatively little value in terms of health benefits. A recently completed project focused on inappropriate diagnostic imaging services, funded by the National Institute for Health Care Management. In this study, center faculty have used the Massachusetts All Payer Database to to examine inappropriate diagnostic imaging based on guidelines from the American College of Radiology.

Selected Publications

Young, G, D. Zepeda, S. Flaherty and N. Thai. “Hospital Employment of Physicians in Massachusetts is Associated with Inappropriate Diagnostic Imaging” Health Affairs, 2021, 40: 710 — 718. 

Zepeda, D., G. Nyaga, and G. Young. (2021). On the Relations between Focus, Experience, and Hospital Performance Health Care Management Review, 46(4): 289-298.

Poghosyan, H., D. Fortin, H. Moen, and G. Young. (2017). Differences in Uptake of Low-Dose CT Scan for Lung Cancer among White and Black Adult Smokers in the United States- Journal of Healthcare for the Poor and Underserved, 32: 165-178.

Minegishi, T., G. Young, K. Madison, and S. Pizer. (2020). Regional Market Factors and Patient Experience in Primary Care. American Journal of Managed Care, 26: 294-299.

Ranade, A., G. Young, J. Griffith, and J. McGuire. (2020). Impact of Changes in Dental Benefits on Utilization of Emergency Departments for Non-Traumatic Dental Conditions in Massachusetts. Public Health Reports, 135: 571-577.

Young, G., S. Flaherty, D. Zepeda. J. Griffith and K. Mortele. (2020). Effects of Physician Experience, Specialty Training, and Self-Referral on Inappropriate Diagnostic Imaging. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 35: 1661 – 1667. 

Song, P., S. Lee, M. Toth, S. Singh, and G. Young. (2019). Gender Differences in Hospital CEO Compensation: A National Investigation of Not-for-Profit Hospitals. Medical Care Research and Review, 76: 830 – 846.  

Young, G. S. Flaherty, D. Zepeda, S. Singh, and S. Rosenbaum. (2019).  Impact of ACA Medicaid Expansion on Hospital Finance. Journal of Healthcare Management, 64: 91 – 101. 

Ranade, A., G. Young, J. Griffith, R. Garcia, A. Singhal, and J. McGuire. (2019). Determinants of Emergency Department Utilization for Non-Traumatic Dental Conditions in Massachusetts. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 79: 71 – 78. 

Flaherty, S., D. Zepeda, K. Mortele, and G. Young. (2019). Magnitude and Financial Implications of Inappropriate Diagnostic Imaging for Three Common Clinical Conditions. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 39: 691 – 697. 

Waddimba, A., D. Mohr, H. Beckman, T. Mahoney and G. Young. (2019). Job Satisfaction and Guideline Adherence among Physicians: Moderating Effects of Perceived Autonomy and Job Control. Social Science and Medicine, 233: 208 — 217. 

Ranade, A., G. Young, J. Griffith, and J. McGuire. (2019). Emergency Department Revisits for Non- Traumatic Dental Conditions in Massachusetts. Journal of the American Dental Association, 150: 656 – 663.

Islam, M., M. Morshed, G. Young and M. Noor.  (2019). Robust Policy Evaluation from Large-Scale Observational Studies. PLOS ONE, 14 (10) e0223360. 

Zepeda, D., G. Nyaga, G. Young. (2019). The Effect of Hospital-Physician Integration on Operational  Performance: Evaluating Physician Employment for Cardiac Services. Decision Sciences, 5(2): 282–316.

*Hasan, M., M. Noor, D. Zepeda, and G. Young. (2019). Hospital Readmissions to Non-Index Hospitals: Patterns and Determinants Following the Adoption of the Medicare Readmission Reduction Penalty Program. Journal of Healthcare Quality, 42(1): e10-e17.

Oppel, E. and G. Young. (2018). Nurse Staffing Patterns and Patient Experience with Care: An Empirical Analysis of U.S. Hospitals. Health Services Research, 53, 1799 — 1818.

Singh, S., G. Young, K. Madison, and L. Loomer. (2018). State-Level Community Benefit Regulation and Nonprofit Hospitals’ Provision of Community Benefits. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 43: 229 — 270.

Young, G., *S. Flaherty, D. Zepeda, S. Singh, and *G. Cramer. (2018). Community Benefit Spending by Tax-Exempt Hospitals Changed Little After ACA. Health Affairs, 37: 121-124.

*Flaherty, S., K. Mortele, and G. Young. (2018). Utilization Trends in Diagnostic Imaging for a Commercially Insured Population: A Study of Massachusetts Residents, 2009 – 2013. Journal of the American College of Radiology, 15: 834 — 841.

Young, G., Rickles, N. Benzer. J., and Dangi, A. (2017). Management of Medicare Part D Prescription Plans: A Conceptual Framework and Empirical Analysis. Medical Care, 55 (1), 37-42.

Malley, A. and Young, G. (2017). A Qualitative Study of Patient and Provider Experiences during Preoperative Care Transitions. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 26 (13-14):2016-2024.

Cramer, G.S., Flaherty, S., Singh, S. and Young, G. (2017). The Progress of U.S. Hospitals in Addressing Community Health Needs. American Journal of Public Health, 107 (2), 255-261.

Hoff, T., Sutcliffe, K., Young, G. (2016). The Healthcare Professional Workforce: Understanding Human Capital in a Changing Industry. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.

Nyaga, G., Young G.,  Moran, G. (2016). Ten Actions to Improve Inventory Management in Government: Lessons from VA Hospitals. IBM Center for The Business of Government:

Zepeda, D., Nyaga, G., Young, G. (2016). Supply Chain Risk Management and Hospital Inventory: Effects of System Affiliation. Journal of Operations Management, 44: 30-47.

Rickles, N., Young, G., Hall, J., Noland, C., Kim, A., Peterson, C. & Hong, M. (2016). Medication Adherence Communications in Community Pharmacies: A Naturalistic Investigation. Patient Education and Counseling, 36: 386-392.

Young, G., Nyaga, G., & Zepeda, D. (2016). Hospital Employment of Physicians and Supply Chain Performance: An Empirical Investigation. Health Care Management Review, 41(3): 244-255.

Nyaga, G., Young, G. & Zepeda, D. (2015). Analysis of Inter- and Intra-Organizational Arrangements on Hospitals’ Supply Chain Efficiency. Journal of Business Logistics, 36: 340-354.

Rubin, D., Singh, S., & Young, G. (2015). Tax-exempt hospitals and community benefit: New directions in policy and practice. Annual Review of Public Health, 36: 545-557.

Singh, S., Young, G., Lee, S., Song, P., & Alexander, J. (2015). Analysis of Hospital Community Benefit Expenditures’ Alignment with Community Health Needs? Evidence from a National Investigation of Tax-exempt Hospitals. American Journal of Public Health, 105: 914-921.

Young, G., Rickles, N., Hung, C., & Raver, E. (2014). Socioeconomic Characteristics of Enrollees Appear to Influence Performance Scores for Medicare Part D Contractors. Health Affairs, 33(1), 140-146.

Young, G., Chou, C., Alexander, J., Lee, S., & Raver, E. (2013). Provision of Community Benefits by Tax Exempt U.S. Hospitals. New England Journal of Medicine, 368, 1519-1527.

Young, G. (2012). Multi-stakeholder Regional Collaboratives Have Been Key Drivers of Public Reporting but Now Face Challenges. Health Affairs, 31, 578-584.

Young G., Beckman, H., & Baker, E. (2012). Financial Incentives, Professional Values and Performance: A Study of Pay-for-performance in a Professional Organization. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33, 964-983.