Recent Publications


Vera-Diaz, F. A., Bex, P.J., Ferreira, A. and Kosovicheva, A.K.  (2018) “Binocular Temporal Visual Processing in Myopia.” Journal of Vision in press.

Alberti, C. and Bex, P.J.  (2018) “Binocular contrast summation
and inhibition depends on spatial frequency, eccentricity and
binocular disparity.” Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics in press.

Bennett C.R., Bailin E.S., Gottlieb T.K., Bauer C.M., Bex P.J. and Merabet L.B. (2018) Virtual Reality Based Assessment of Static Object Visual Search in Ocular Compared to Cerebral Visual Impairment. In: Antona M., Stephanidis C. (eds) Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Virtual, Augmented, and Intelligent Environments. UAHCI 2018. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 10908. Springer, Cham

Maiello, G., Kwon, M.Y. and Bex, P.J. (2018) “Three-Dimensional Binocular Eye-Hand Coordination in Normal Vision and with Simulated Visual Impairment.” Experimental Brain Research, 166, 96-105.

Bennett, C.R., Bailin, E.S., Gottlieb, T.K., Bauer, C.M., Bex, P.J. and Merabet, L.B. (2018) Assessing Visual Search Performance in Ocular Compared to Cerebral Visual Impairment Using a Virtual Reality Simulation of Human Dynamic Movement. APAScience: 4:1-4:6

Wang, M., Pasquale, L. R. Shen, L.Q., Boland, M.V., Wellick, S., de Moraes, G., Myers, J., Wang, H., Baniasadi, N., Li, D. Silva, R.N.E., Bex, P. J. and Elze, T. (2018) “ Predicting Reversal of the Glaucoma Hemifield Test to Normal after Two Consecutive Abnormal Results.” Ophthalmology, 125 (3) 352-360.


Wang, M., Pasquale, L. R. Shen, L.Q., Boland, M.V., Wellick, S., de Moraes, G., Myers, J., Bex, P. J. and Elze, T. (2017) “Impact of Natural Blind Spot Location on Perimetry.” Scientific Reports, 7(1), 6143.

Bossi, M., Tailor, V.K., Anderson, E.J., Bex, P.J., Greenwood, J.A., Dahlmann-Noor, A. and Dakin, S.C.  (2017) “Binocular therapy for childhood amblyopia improves vision without breaking interocular suppression.” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 58 (7): 3031-3043.

Dorr, M., Lesmes, L.A, Elze, T., Wang, H., Lu, Z-L and Bex, P.J. (2017)  “New precision metrics for contrast sensitivity testing.” IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics, (99), 1-1.

Maiello, G., Walker, L., Bex, P.J. and Vera-Diaz, F.A. (2017) “Blur Perception Throughout the Visual Field in Myopia and Emmetropia.” Journal of Vision 17 (5): 3, 1-13.

Dorr, M., Elze, T., Wang, H., Lesmes, L., Lu, Z. L. and Bex, P. (2017) “Evaluation of the precision of contrast sensitivity function assessment on a tablet device.” Scientific Reports,  7, 46706.

Harrison, W. & Bex, P.J. (2017) “Visual crowding is a combination of an increase of positional uncertainty, source confusion, and featural averaging.” Scientific Reports, 7, 45551.

Rose, D. & P. J. Bex, (2017)  “Peripheral Oculomotor Training in Individuals with Healthy Visual Systems: Effects of Training and Training Transfer,” Vision Research, 133, 95-99.

Wang, M., Wang, H., Pasquale, L. R., Baniasadi, N., Shen, L. Q., Bex, P. J., & Elze, T. (2017) “Relationship between Central Retinal Vessel Trunk Location and Visual Field Loss in Glaucoma.” American Journal of Ophthalmology, 176, 53-60.


Birch, E. E., Morale, S. E., Jost, R. M., Cruz, A. D. L., Kelly, K. R., Wang, Y.-Z., & Bex, P. J. (2016) “Assessing Suppression in Amblyopic Children With a Dichoptic Eye Chart.” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 57(13), 5649–5654. 

Chessa, M., Maiello, G., Borsari, A. and Bex, PJ. (2016)  “The perceptual quality of the Oculus Rift for immersive virtual reality.” Human Computer Interaction, 1-32.

Maiello, G., Harrison, WJ. and Bex PJ. (2016) “Monocular and Binocular Contributions to Oculomotor Plasticity”   Scientific Reports, 6,  31861.

Chessa, M., Maiello, G., Bex, P. J., & Solari, F. (2016). “A space-variant model for motion interpretation across the visual field”. Journal of Vision, 16(2), 12.

Cai, S.,Elze, T., Bex. P. J., Wiggs, J. L., Pasquale, L. R. and Shen, L. Q.  (2016) “Clinical Correlates of Computationally Derived Visual Field Defect Archetypes in Patients from a Glaucoma Clinic” Current Eye Research0(0), 1–7.

Piano, M., Bex, P.J. and Simmers A. J., (2016) “Perceived visual distortions in juvenile amblyopes during/following routine amblyopia treatment,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 57 (10) 4045-4054.

Sinha, P., Bex, P.J., Kjelgaard, M. and Phillips, F. (2016) “Enhancing Research with Plenary Labs.”  Science and Public Policy.

Kerber, K. L., Thorn, F., Bex, P. J. and Vera-Diaz, F. A. (2016) “Peripheral Contrast sensitivity and Attention in Myopia.” Vision Research, 125, 49-54.

Harrison, WJ. and Bex PJ. (2016) “Ungrouping Overcrowded Explanations of Visual Crowding: Reply to Pachai et al.” Current Biology, 26(9): R353-354.

Gibaldi, A., Vanegas, M., Bex, P. J. and Maiello, G. (2016) “Evaluation of the Tobii Eye X Eye Tracking Controller and Matlab Toolkit for Research.” Behavior Research Methods, 10.3758/s13428-016-0762-9, 1-24;  download the toolkit.

Verstraten FAJ, Bex PJ. (2016) “The motion aftereffect.” In: Oxford Compendium of Visual Illusions. Oxford University Press.

Bex PJ. (2016) “Contrast Sensitivity.” In: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology. Academic Press.


Wiecek, E. K. Lashkari, S. C. Dakin, and P. J. Bex, (2015) “Metamorphopsia and Interocular Suppression in Monocular and Binocular Retinopathy.” Acta Ophthalmologia, 93(4): 318-320.

Wiecek E, Lashkari K, Dakin SC and Bex PJ. (2015) “A Statistical Analysis of Metamorphopsia in 7106 Amsler Grids.” JAMA Ophthalmology, 122, 431-433.

Elze, T., Pasquale, L. R., Shen, L. Q, and Bex, P.J. (2015) “Patterns of functional vision loss in glaucoma determined with archetypal analysis.” Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 12 (103).

Taylor, C. P. and Bex, P.J. (2015) “On the number of perceivable blur levels in naturalistic images.” Vision Research 115, 142-150.

Dorr, M., Wille, M., Viulet, T., Sanchez, E., Bex, P. J., Lu, Z.-L., & Lesmes, L. (2015) “Next-generation vision testing: the quick CSF.” Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering, 1(1).

Hou, F., Lesmes, L.L., Bex, P.J., Dorr, M and Lu, Z.L. (2015) “Using 10AFC to further improve the efficiency of quick CSF.” Journal of Vision 15(9):2.

Christensen, J. H., Bex P. J. and Fiser, J. (2015) “Prior implicit knowledge shapes human thresholds for orientation noise.” Journal of Vision, 15(9):24.

Wallis, T.S.A., Dorr, M. and Bex P. J. (2015) “Sensitivity to gaze-contingent contrast increments in naturalistic movies: An exploratory report and model comparison.” Journal of Vision 15(8):3, 1-33.

Miller, P. A., Wallis, G., Bex, P. J., and Arnold, D. (2015) “Reducing the size of the human physiological blind spot through training”. Current Biology 25(17): R747-748

Piano, M., Bex, P.J. and Simmers A. J., (2015) “Perceptual visual distortions in adult amblyopia and their relationship to clinical features.” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 56, 5533-5542.

Maiello, G., Chessa, M., Solari, F., and Bex, P. J. (2015) “The (In)Effectiveness of Simulated Blur for Depth Perception in Naturalistic Images.” PLOS ONE, 10(10), e0140230.

Harrison, WJ. and Bex PJ. (2015) “A unifying model of orientation crowding in peripheral vision”. Current Biology, 25 (24) 3213-3219

Kwon, M., Wiecek, E., Dakin, S. and Bex, P. J. (2015) “Spatial-frequency dependent binocular imbalance in amblyopia.” Scientific Reports 5, 17181


Wallis T.S.A,. Taylor C.P., Wallis J., Jackson M., Bex P.J. (2014) “Characterisation of field loss based on microperimetry is predictive of face recognition difficulties”. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science; 55(1):142–153.

Bogfjellmo, L.G., Bex , P.J. and H. K. Falkenberg, H.K. (2014) “The Development of Global Motion Discrimination in School Aged Children.” Journal of Vision; 2 (19) 1-12

Saunders, D.R., Bex, P.J. and R. L. Woods, R.L. (2014)“Measuring Information Acquisition from Sensory Input Using Automated Scoring of Natural Language Descriptions.” PLoSOne; 9, (4) e93251.

Kalia, A.,  Lesmes, L.A. Dorr, M. Gandhi, T. Chatterjee, G. Bex, P. J. and Sinha, P.  (2014) “Contrast Sensitivity Development After Extended Congenital Blindness.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences; 4;111(5):2035-9.

Bauer, C. Heidary, G. Koo, B. Bex, P.J. and Merabet, L.  (2014) “Abnormal white matter tractography of visual pathways detected by high-angular-resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) corresponds to visual dysfunction in cortical/cerebral visual impairment.” Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, 18(4) 398-401.

G. T. Feke, G.T., Bex, P.J., Taylor, C.P., Rhee,D.J., Turalba, A.V., Chen, T.C., Wand, M. and Pasquale, L.R. (2014) “Effect of Brimonidine on Retinal Vascular Autoregulation and Short-Term Visual Function in Normal Tension Glaucoma.” Journal of Ophthalmology, 158 (1), 105-112.

Harrison, WJ. and Bex PJ. (2014) “Integrating Retinotopic Features in Spatiotopic Coordinates.” Journal of Neuroscience, 34 (21) 7351-7360

Kwon, M., Lu, ZL,, Miller, A., Kazlas, M., Lesmes, L. Hunter, D. and Bex, P.J. (2014) “Assessing Binocular Interaction in Amblyopia and Its Clinical Feasibility.” PLoSOne, 9(6) e100156.

Maiello, G. Chessa, M. Solari, F. and Bex, PJ. (2014) “Simulated Disparity and Peripheral Blur Interact During Binocular Fusion.” Journal of Vision; 14 (8): 13:1-14.

Wiecek, E. K, Dakin, S. C. and Bex, P. J. (2014) “Metamorphopsia and Letter Recognition.” Journal of Vision; 14(4)1: 1-10.

Wiecek E, Lashkari K, Dakin SC and Bex PJ. (2014) “Novel Quantitative Assessment of Metamorphopsia in Retinopathy.” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 56(1) 494-504.


Dorr M, Bex PJ. (2013) “Peri-Saccadic Natural Vision.” Journal of Neuroscience. 2013;33(3):1211–1217.

Lesmes LA, Jackson M, Bex PJ. (2013) “Visual Function Endpoints to Enable Dry AMD Clinical Trials.” Drug Discovery Today: Therapeutic Strategies; 10(1): 43-50.

Pelli, D. Bex PJ. (2013) “Measuring Contrast Sensitivity.” Vision Research; 90, 10-14.

Saunders, D.R., P. J. Bex, and R. L. Woods, (2013) “Crowdsourcing a normative natural language dataset: A comparison of Mechanical Turk and in-lab data collection.” Journal of Medical Internet Research, May 20;15(5):e100. doi: 10.2196/jmir.2620.

Elze, T., C. P. Taylor, and P. J. Bex, (2013) “An evaluation of organic light emitting diode monitors for medical applications: great timing, but luminance artifacts.” Medical Physics, 2013; 40(9), 092701.

Bogfjellmo, L.G., P. J. Bex and H. K. Falkenberg, (2013) “Reduction in direction discrimination with age and slow speed is due to both increased internal noise and reduced sampling efficiency.” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science; 54 (8) 5204-5210.

Jackson, M., Bex, P.J., Ellison, J., Wicks, P. and Wallis, J. (2013) “Feasibility of a Web-based Survey of Hallucinations and Assessment of Visual Function in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease.” Interactive Journal of Medical Research, 3(1): e1. doi: 10.2196/ijmr.2744..

Dorr M, Lesmes LA, Lu ZL, Bex PJ. (2013) “Rapid and precise contrast sensitivity assessment on a tablet device.” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science; 54, 7266-7273.


McIlreavy L, Fiser J, Bex PJ. (2012) “Impact of Artificial Central Visual Impairment on Visual Search in Natural Scenes.” Optometry And Vision Science, 89 (9) 1385-1394.

Wallis TSA, Bex PJ. (2012) “Image correlates of crowding in natural scenes.” Journal of Vision.;12(7).

Greenwood J.A., Bex P.J. and Dakin S.C. (2012) “Crowding Follows the Binding of Relative Position and Orientation.” Journal of Vision;12(3).

Wardle S.G., Bex P.J., Cass J., and Alais D. (2012) “Stereoacuity in the Periphery Is Limited by Internal Noise.” Journal of Vision;12(6).

Cass, J., Johnson, A., Bex, P. J., Alais, D. (2012) “Orientation-specificity of adaptation: isotropic adaptation is purely monocular.” PLoS ONE;7 (11) e47425.

Greenwood J.A., Tailor, V. K., Sloper J.J., Simmers, A.J., Bex, P.J. and Dakin, S.C. (2012) ” Visual acuity, crowding, and stereo-vision are linked in children with and without amblyopia.” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science; 53(12)7655-7665.

Wiecek, E., Jackson, M., Dakin, S.C. and Bex, P.J. (2012) “Visual Search with Image Modification in Age-Related Macular Degeneration”. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science; 53 (1) 6600-6609.

Wiecek, E., Pasquale, L., Fiser, J., Dakin, S.C. and Bex, P.J. (2012) “Effects of Peripheral Visual Field Loss on Eye Movements during Visual Search.” Frontiers in Psychology(3) 472, 1-13.


Dakin S.C., Greenwood J.A., Carlson T.A. and Bex, P.J. (2011) “Crowding is tuned for perceived (not physical) location.” Journal of Vision;11(9).

Dorr, M., Bex, P.J. (2011) “A gaze-contingent display to study contrast sensitivity under natural viewing conditions.” SPIE Proceedings vol 7865.

Kane, D,. Bex P.J. and Dakin S. (2011) “Quantifying ‘the aperture problem’ for judgments of motion direction in natural scenes.” Journal of Vision;11(3).

Wallis, T.S.A. and Bex, P.J. (2011) “Visual Crowding is Correlated with Awareness.” Current Biology;21(3):254–258.

Dartt, D.A., Bex, P.J., D’Amore, P., et al. Ocular Periphery and Disorders. 1st ed. Academic Press; 2011.


Bex, P.J. (2010) “(In) Sensitivity to spatial distortion in natural scenes.” Journal of Vision;10(2):1–15.

Dakin, S.C., Cass, J., Greenwood, J.A. and Bex, P.J. (2010) “Probabilistic, positional averaging predicts object-level crowding effects with letter-like stimuli.” Journal of Vision.;10(10):1–16.

Greenwood, J.A., Bex, P.J. and Dakin, S.C. (2010) “Crowding Changes Appearance.” Current Biology;20:496–501.

Murray, S. and Bex, P.J. (2010) “Perceived Blur in Naturally Contoured Images Depends on Phase.” Frontiers in Psychology;1.p 185

Bex, P.J. (2010) “Contrast Sensitivity.” In: Encyclopedia of the Eye. Academic Press.

Besharse, J., Dana, R., Dartt, D. A., Battelle, B., Beebe, D., Bex, P.J., Bishop, P., Bok, D., D’Amore, P., Edelhauser, H., Mcloon, L., Niederkorn, J., Reh, T. and Tamm, E. (2010). Encyclopedia of the Eye, (1st ed.). Academic Press.

pre 2010

Bex,P.J., Brady, N., Fredericksen, R.E. and Hess, R.F. (1005) “Energetic motion detection.” Nature. 1995;378(6558):670–2.

Bex PJ, Edgar GK. Shifts in the perceived location of a blurred edge increase with contrast I. Perception & Psychophysics. 1995;57(8):1187–9.

Bex PJ, Edgar GK, Smith AT. Multiple Images Appear When Motion Energy Detection Fails. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 1995;21:231–238.

Bex PJ, Edgar GK, Smith AT. Sharpening of drifting, blurred images. Vision Research. 1995;35(18):2539–46.

Edgar GK, Bex PJ. Vision and Displays. In: Carr K, England R, eds. Simulated and Virtual Realities: Elements of Perception. London UK: Taylor and Francis; 1995:85–101.

Bex PJ, Edgar GK. Shifts in the perceived location of a blurred edge increase with contrast II. Perception & Psychophysics. 1996;58(1):31–3.

Bex PJ, Verstraten FA, Mareschal I. Temporal and spatial frequency tuning of the flicker motion aftereffect. Vision Research. 1996;36(17):2721–7.

Hammett ST, Bex PJ. Motion sharpening: evidence for the addition of high spatial frequencies to the effective neural image. Vision Research. 1996;36(17):2729–33.

Bex PJ, Baker CL. The effects of distractor elements on direction discrimination in random Gabor kinematograms. Vision Research. 1997;37(13):1761–1767.

Bex PJ, Makous W. Radial motion looks faster. Vision Research. 1997;37(23):3399–405.

Brady N, Bex PJ, Fredericksen RE. Independent coding across spatial scales in moving fractal images. Vision Research. 1997;37(14):1873–83.

Fredericksen RE, Bex PJ, Verstraten FA. How big is a Gabor patch, and why should we care? Journal of the Optical Society of America. 1997;14(1):1–12.

Hess RF, Demanins R, Bex PJ. A reduced motion aftereffect in strabismic amblyopia. Vision Research. 1997;37(10):1303–1311.

Mareschal I, Ashida H, Bex PJ, Nishida S, Verstraten FA. Linking lower and higher stages of motion processing? Vision Research. 1997;37(13):1755–9.

Bex PJ, Metha AB, Makous W. Psychophysical evidence for a functional hierarchy of motion processing mechanisms. Journal of the Optical Society of America. 1998;15(4):769–76.

Hess RF, Bex PJ, Fredericksen ER, Brady N. Is human motion detection subserved by a single or multiple channel mechanism? Vision Research. 1998;38(2):259–66.

Bex PJ., Bedingham and Hammett, S. T.  Apparent speed and speed sensitivity during adaptation to motion. Journal of the Optical Society of America. 1999;16(12):2817–2824.

Bex PJ, Baker CL. Motion perception over long interstimulus intervals. Perception & Psychophysics. 1999;61(6):1066–74.

Bex PJ, Metha AB, Makous W. Enhanced motion aftereffect for complex motions. Vision Research. 1999;39(13):2229–38.

Bex PJ, Simmers AJ, Dakin SC. Snakes and ladders: the role of temporal modulation in visual contour integration. Vision Research. 2001;41(27):3775–82.

Dakin SC, Bex PJ. Local and global visual grouping: tuning for spatial frequency and contrast. Journal of Vision. 2001;1(2):99–111.

Simmers AJ, Bex PJ. Deficit of visual contour integration in dyslexia. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 2001;42(11):2737–42.

Simmers AJ, Bex PJ, Smith FK, Wilkins AJ. Spatiotemporal visual function in tinted lens wearers. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 2001;42(3):879–84.

Bex PJ, Dakin SC. Comparison of the spatial-frequency selectivity of local and global motion detectors. Journal of the Optical Society of America. 2002;19(4):670–7.

Bex PJ, Makous W. Spatial frequency, phase, and the contrast of natural images. Journal of the Optical Society of America. 2002;19(6):1096–106.

Dakin SC, Bex PJ. Role of synchrony in contour binding: some transient doubts sustained. Journal of the Optical Society of America. 2002;19(4):678–86.

Dakin SC, Bex PJ. Summation of concentric orientation structure: seeing the Glass or the window? Vision Research. 2002;42(16):2013–20.

Bex PJ, Dakin SC. Motion detection and the coincidence of structure at high and low spatial frequencies. Vision Research. 2003;43(4):371–83.

Bex PJ, Dakin SC, Simmers AJ. The shape and size of crowding for moving targets. Vision Research. 2003;43(27):2895–904.

Bex PJ, Simmers AJ, Dakin SC. Grouping local directional signals into moving contours. Vision Research. 2003;43(20):2141–53.

Dakin SC, Bex PJ. Response to Wilson & Wilkinson: Evidence For Global Processing but No Evidence for Specialised Detectors in the Visual Processing of Glass Patterns. Vision Research. 2003;43(3):565–566.

Dakin SC, Bex PJ. Natural image statistics mediate brightness “filling in.” Proceedings of The Royal Society of London B. 2003;270(1531):2341–2348.

Fiser J, Bex PJ, Makous W. Contrast conservation in human vision. Vision Research. 2003;43(25):2637–48.

Hess RF, Pointer JS, Simmers A, Bex P. Border distinctness in amblyopia. Vision Research. 2003;43(21):2255–64.

Simmers AJ, Bex PJ, Hess RF. Perceived blur in amblyopia. Investigative Ophthalmlogy and Visual Science. 2003;44(3):1395–400.

Simmers AJ, Bex PJ. The representation of global spatial structure in amblyopia. Vision Research. 2004;44(5):523–33.

Bex PJ, Dakin SC. Spatial interference among moving targets. Vision Research. 2005;45(11):1385–98.

Bex PJ, Dakin SC, Mareschal I. Critical band masking in optic flow. Network: Computation in Neural Systems. 2005;16(2-3):261–84.

Dakin SC, Mareschal I, Bex PJ. An oblique effect for local motion: psychophysics and natural movie statistics. Journal of Vision. 2005;5(10):878–87.

Dakin SC, Mareschal I, Bex PJ. Local and global limitations on direction integration assessed using equivalent noise analysis. Vision Research. 2005;45(24):3027–49.

Bex PJ, Falkenberg HK. Resolution of complex motion detectors in the central and peripheral visual field. Journal of the Optical Society of America. 2006;23(7):1598–607.

Mareschal I, Dakin SC, Bex PJ. Dynamic properties of orientation discrimination assessed by using classification images. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2006;103(13):5131–6.

Bex PJ, Langley K. The perception of suprathreshold contrast and fast adaptive filtering. Journal of Vision. 2007;7(12:1):1–23.

Bex PJ, Dakin SC, Mareschal I. Contrast Gain Control in Natural Scenes. Journal of Vision. 2007;7(11):12, 1–12.

Crossland MD, Dakin SC, Bex PJ. Illusory stimuli can be used to identify retinal blind spots. PLoS ONE. 2007;2(10):e1060.

Falkenberg HK, Bex PJ. Contextual modulation of the motion aftereffect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance. 2007;33(2):257–270.

Falkenberg HK, Rubin GS, Bex PJ. Acuity, crowding, reading and fixation stability. Vision Research. 2007;47(1):126–35.

Langley K, Bex PJ. Contrast adaptation implies two spatiotemporal channels but three adapting processes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance. 2007;33(6):1283–96.

Falkenberg HK, Bex PJ. Sources of Motion-Sensitivity Loss in Glaucoma. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 2007;48(6):2913–2921.

Crossland MD, Bex PJ. The twinkle aftereffect is pre-cortical and is independent of filling-in. Journal of Vision. 2008;8(11):13 1–10.

Mareschal I, Bex P, Dakin S. Local motion processing limits fine direction discrimination in the periphery. Vision Research. 2008;48(16):1719–1725.

Bex PJ, Solomon SG, Dakin SC. Contrast sensitivity in natural scenes depends on edge as well as spatial frequency structure. Journal of Vision. 2009;9(10):1 1–19.

Cass J, Alais D, Spehar B, Bex PJ. Temporal whitening: transient noise perceptually equalizes the 1/f temporal amplitude spectrum. Journal of Vision. 2009;9(10):12 1–19.

Cass J, Stuit S, Bex P, Alais D. Orientation bandwidths are invariant across spatiotemporal frequency after isotropic components are removed. Journal of Vision. 2009;9(12):17 1–14.

Crossland MD, Bex PJ. Spatial alignment over retinal scotomas. Investigative Ophthalmlogy and Visual Science. 2009;50(3):1464–9.

Dakin SC, Bex PJ, Cass JR, Watt RJ. Dissociable effects of attention and crowding on orientation averaging. Journal of Vision. 2009;9(11):28 1–16.

Greenwood JA, Bex PJ, Dakin SC. Positional averaging explains crowding with letter-like stimuli. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 2009;106(31):13130–5.

Kane D, Bex PJ, Dakin SC. (2009) The aperture problem in contoured stimuli. Journal of Vision;9(10):13 1–17.